Cases reported "Trigeminal Nerve Diseases"

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1/65. Differential diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory trigeminal sensory neuropathy from neuroma with a biopsy: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Idiopathic inflammatory trigeminal sensory neuropathy (IITSN) is a disorder with the dominant clinical features of trigeminal sensory disturbance; this idiopathic condition follows a benign course in most cases. Recent reports have shown that transient abnormalities, which may mimic those of trigeminal neuromas, can be observed in magnetic resonance imaging scans. Presented here is a case of IITSN that was diagnosed, with cytological and histopathological verification, during the active inflammatory phase of the disease (the first such attempt, to our knowledge). CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital with a 2-month history of numbness of the left side of her face, headache, and hemifacial pain attacks. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a mass above and below the foramen ovale, extending into the cavernous sinus. INTERVENTION: A percutaneous biopsy procedure through the foramen ovale was performed; the pathological examination revealed lymphocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells but no evidence of neoplastic cells. A few days later, the patient was surgically treated using a cranial base approach, the gasserian ganglion was exposed, and the lesion was removed. Pathological examination of the specimens revealed inflammatory changes and fibrosis of the nerve fibers and ganglion cells. Disruption of the myelin around the nerve bundles was detected. Therefore, IITSN was pathologically confirmed during the early stage of the disease. During 3 months of follow-up monitoring, the patient experienced no serious clinical problems. CONCLUSION: IITSN should be suspected in cases of tumors involving the cavernous sinus, and a percutaneous biopsy through the foramen ovale should be performed as part of the differential diagnosis in such cases. This procedure might obviate unnecessary aggressive surgery. In the current case, no neoplastic cells were observed during the examination; only lymphocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells were observed, on a background of erythrocytes. Lymphocyte-dominant inflammatory infiltration, fibrotic changes, and demyelinization are cardinal histopathological findings observed during the active phase of IITSN.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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2/65. Congenital trigeminal anesthesia in two siblings and their long-term follow-up.

    PURPOSE: To alert ophthalmologists to congenital trigeminal anesthesia as a cause of corneal scarring and amblyopia and its effective treatment with tarsorrhaphies. methods: case reports. A 2-month-old infant presented with bilateral corneal erosions and complete corneal anesthesia. Her sister presented at age 3 years with a corneal ulcer and corneal hypoesthesia (sensation markedly decreased). The father and paternal grandmother of the siblings also had corneal hypoesthesia. RESULTS: Further investigation of the infant revealed bilateral hearing loss, swallowing difficulties, and decreased sensation in the trigeminal nerve distribution. A diagnosis of congenital trigeminal anesthesia was made. The corneal erosions of the patient resolved with bilateral two-thirds width tarsorrhaphies. The girl continues to do well now at 10 years of age with ocular lubrication and superficial corneal scar removal. Her older sister initially required antibiotic ointment for her corneal ulcer but now requires only ocular lubrication for congenital trigeminal anesthesia. CONCLUSION: This study describes the earliest reported use of tarsorrhaphies in an infant with congenital trigeminal anesthesia. The presence of this condition in her sister and relatives makes it one of the few reports of congenital trigeminal anesthesia in more than two generations. Early recognition of this condition is essential in the preservation of useful vision.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = nerve
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3/65. Amyloidoma in the gasserian ganglion: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Amyloidoma in the central nervous system is extremely rare. We describe a rare case of amyloidoma in the gasserian ganglion manifesting as trigeminal neuropathy. methods: A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with progressive numbness and hypalgesia in the distribution of the second and third divisions of the left trigeminal nerve. There was no evidence of chronic inflammatory disorder or immunological abnormalities. Magnetic resonance images showed a mass in the left Meckel's cave that was brightly enhanced with gadolinium. RESULTS: A reddish, firm mass was successfully removed via a left temporal craniotomy. Histologically, the tumor was composed of larger acellular deposits of eosinophilic material. The acellular deposits were positive for potassium permanganate-resistant congo red staining, showing apple-green birefringence under polarized light and expression of immunoglobulin lambda light chain-derived proteins (A lambda) immunohistochemically. CONCLUSION: The present case revealed an A lambda amyloidoma in the left gasserian ganglion. Although the incidence is rare, amyloidoma should be suspected in patients who complain of progressive trigeminal neuropathies and show an enhanced lesion in the gasserian ganglion on MR images.
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ranking = 440.24548786686
keywords = trigeminal nerve, nerve
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4/65. Thermally induced transient trigeminal sensory neuropathy: imaging findings.

    We report the clinical and imaging features of a patient with transient partial trigeminal sensory neuropathy thought to have been induced by thermal injury to the tongue. Abnormal thickening and enhancement of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve was revealed by MR imaging. The diagnostic considerations for mass-like enlargement of the trigeminal nerve should include transient/inflammatory processes, as well as more common and sinister conditions, such as tumor.
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ranking = 880.49114149289
keywords = trigeminal nerve, nerve, injury
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5/65. Idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy with gadolinium enhancement in the cisternal segment.

    The authors report two patients with idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy who showed gadolinium enhancement of the cisternal segment of the corresponding trigeminal nerve in cranial MRI. The resolution of these lesions in a repeat MRI suggests a similarity to Bell's palsy.
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ranking = 440.24548786686
keywords = trigeminal nerve, nerve
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6/65. Idiopathic familial facial nerve paralysis.

    A 26-year-old man was seen one day after developing a left facial palsy of unknown aetiology. He had previously had a left facial palsy at age 14 and a right facial palsy at 19, both with minimal residual paresis. Both his mother and grandmother have had facial palsies. The role of hereditary influences in idiopathic facial paralysis, as well as the treatment of this condition, is discussed.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nerve
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7/65. bupropion-induced isolated impairment of sensory trigeminal nerve function.

    bupropion is increasingly used for nicotine withdrawal and in the treatment of major depression, especially in bipolar patients. We present the case of a 38-year-old female schizoaffective, rapid-cycling patient treated with bupropion for a depressive episode. After 4 weeks of successful treatment (300 mg/day), the patient developed a circumscribed unilateral impairment of sensory trigeminal nerve function. Symptoms completely recovered after discontinuation of bupropion. When re-exposed to bupropion, mild symptoms reappeared, leading to final discontinuation of bupropion. With this natural on-off-on-off design, a causative role of bupropion for trigeminal impairment in this patient can be assumed. To our knowledge, a similar side-effect of bupropion has not been described to date.
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ranking = 2201.2274393343
keywords = trigeminal nerve, nerve
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8/65. Mental neuropathy: report of five cases and review of the literature.

    Mental nerve neuropathy, also referred to as numb chin syndrome, is a rare, seemingly harmless symptom. It is more often associated with cancer, either as first symptom or during the outcome, than with benign diseases. In this review, we will focus on the numb chin syndrome presenting as an isolated neurological symptom. We report five patients with mental nerve neuropathy associated with metastatic disease (small cell lung cancer, prostatic cancer and breast cancer). In one patient, numb chin syndrome preceded the discovery of the disease, while, in the four others, it occurred as a sign of relapse or progression. Isolated mental nerve neuropathy, frequently associated with breast cancer and lymphoproliferative diseases, is generally thought to be the consequence of bone metastases or leptomeningeal seeding, but may also present without an obvious cause, most often secondary to the involvement of the mental nerve itself. Although various therapies may lead to the resolution of this symptom, median survival after diagnosis is generally less than 1 year. The appearance of a mental nerve neuropathy should never be considered as a 'banal' symptom and investigations to detect a possible cancer should be mandatory.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = nerve
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9/65. abducens nerve paresis as first symptom of trigeminal neurinoma. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Two cases of neurinoma of the Gasserian ganglion with abducens nerve paresis as the first symptom are described and 27 cases culled from the literature are reviewed. The anatomo-surgical and clinical-radiological features of this pathology were re-assessed in an attempt to identify the pathogenetic mechanism responsible for a trigeminal neurinoma manifesting with VI cranial nerve palsy.
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ranking = 3
keywords = nerve
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10/65. Fluid-fluid levels in intracranial schwannomas.

    Intracranial cystic neurogenic tumours constitute an uncommon subset of tumours with a distinct clinico-biological behaviour. The presence of fluid-fluid levels within the tumours, although rare, confirms the cystic nature of the neoplasms. Barring the acoustic schwannomas, cystic cranial nerve schwannomas are exceptionally uncommon. Imaging findings of fluid-fluid levels in two non-acoustic cranial nerve schwannomas are described; one was a cystic trigeminal schwannoma and the other was a glossopharyngeal nerve schwannoma. The causes of the fluid-fluid level and its implications are analysed.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = nerve
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