Cases reported "Trisomy"

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11/1441. Investigation of two cases of paternal disomy 13 suggests timing of isochromosome formation and mechanisms leading to uniparental disomy.

    uniparental disomy (UPD) is the abnormal inheritance of two copies of a chromosome from the same parent. Possible mechanisms for UPD include trisomy rescue, monosomy rescue, gametic complementation, and somatic recombination. Most of these mechanisms can involve rearranged chromosomes, particularly isochromosomes and Robertsonian translocations. Both maternal and paternal UPD have been reported for most of the acrocentric chromosomes. However, only UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 show an apparent imprinting effect. Herein, we present two cases of paternal UPD 13 involving isochromosomes. Both cases were referred for UPD studies due to the formation of a de novo rea(13q13q). Case 2 was complicated by the segregation of a familial rob(13q14q) of maternal origin. Both propositi were phenotypically normal at the time of examination. Polymorphic marker analysis in Case 1 showed the distribution of alleles of markers along chromosome 13 to be complete isodisomy, consistent with an isochromosome. This rearrangement could have occurred either meiotically, without recombination, or mitotically. A likely mechanism for UPD in this case is monosomy rescue, through postzygotic formation of the isochromosome. In Case 2 the distribution of proximal alleles indicated an isochromosome, but recombination was evident. Thus, this isochromosome must have formed prior to or during meiosis I. A likely mechanism for UPD in this case is gametic complementation, since the mother carries a rob(13q14q) and is at risk of producing aneuploid gametes. However, trisomy rescue of a trisomy 13 conceptus cannot be completely excluded. Given that both cases were phenotypically normal, these data further support that paternal UPD 13 does not have an adverse phenotypic outcome and, thus, does not show an apparent imprinting effect.
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12/1441. Directly inherited partial trisomy of chromosome 6p identified in a father and daughter by chromosome microdissection.

    cytogenetic analysis of a 4 year old girl with developmental delay and dysmorphic features showed extra chromosomal material of unknown origin on 20p (46,XX,add(20)(p13)). Familial chromosome studies showed direct inheritance of add(20)(p13) from the father, who had a similar, albeit milder, phenotype. Fibroblast chromosome studies of the father showed no karyotype mosaicism. The additional material could not be identified on the basis of the G banding pattern owing to its small size and ambiguous banding pattern. Chromosome microdissection of the unknown material was performed, the dna was amplified and labelled using degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) and reverse painted to the proband's cells to show the karyotype 46,XX,der(20)t(6;20) (p23;p13), conferring partial trisomy 6p and presumed partial monosomy for 20p. Chromosome microdissection has made possible the first reported case of directly inherited partial trisomy 6p.
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13/1441. Case of partial trisomy 9p and partial trisomy 14q resulting from a maternal translocation: overlapping manifestations of characteristic phenotypes.

    We report on a female infant with partial trisomy 9p (pter-->p13) and partial trisomy 14q (pter-->q22) resulting from a 3:1 segregation of a maternal reciprocal translocation (9;14)(p13;q22). Both trisomy 9p and partial trisomy 14q have been described as recognized phenotypes with characteristic patterns of anomalies. This patient appears to be the first reported with a partial duplication of both 9p and 14q resulting in an overlapping phenotype including minor facial anomalies, cleft palate, and hand-foot anomalies. However, the facial findings were more pronounced than commonly observed in cases with only one or the other duplicated chromosome regions, resulting in a distinctive appearance.
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14/1441. Mosaic trisomy 17 in amniocytes: phenotypic outcome, tissue distribution, and uniparental disomy studies.

    mosaicism for trisomy 17 in amniocyte cultures is a rare finding, whilst postnatal cases are exceptional. In order to gain insight into the possible effects of the distribution of the trisomic line and of uniparental disomy (UPD) on embryofoetal development, we have performed follow-up clinical, cytogenetic and molecular investigations into three newly detected prenatal cases of trisomy 17 mosaicism identified in cultured amniotic fluid. In the first case, the pregnancy ended normally with the birth of a healthy girl, and analysis of newborn lymphocytes and of multiple extra-embryonic tissues was indicative of confined placental mosaicism. The second case was also associated with a normal pregnancy outcome and postnatal development, and only euploid cells were found in peripheral blood after birth. However, maternal isodisomy 17 consequent to a meiosis II error and loss of a chromosome 17 homologue was detected in peripheral lymphocytes postnatally. In the third case, pathological examination after termination of pregnancy showed growth retardation and minor dysmorphisms, and the trisomic line was detected in foetal skin fibroblasts. In addition, biparental derivation of chromosome 17 was demonstrated in the euploid lineage. These results, together with previously reported data, indicate that true amniotic trisomy 17 mosaicism is more commonly of extra-embryonic origin and associated with normal foetal development. Phenotypic consequences may arise when the trisomic line is present in foetal tissues. Case 2 also represents the first observation of maternal UPD involving chromosome 17; the absence of phenotypic anomalies in the child suggests that chromosome 17 is not likely to be subject to imprinting in maternal gametes.
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15/1441. trisomy 20p resulting from inverted duplication and neocentromere formation.

    Normal human centromeres contain large tandem arrays of alpha-satellite dna of varying composition and complexity. However, a new class of mitotically stable marker chromosomes which contain neocentromeres formed from genomic regions previously devoid of centromere activity was described recently. These neocentromeres are fully functional yet lack the repeat sequences traditionally associated with normal centromere function. We report here a supernumerary marker chromosome derived from the short arm of chromosome 20 in a patient with manifestations of dup(20p) syndrome. Detailed cytogenetic, FISH, and polymorphic microsatellite analyses indicate the de novo formation of the marker chromosome during meiosis or early postzygotically, involving an initial chromosome breakage at 20p11.2, followed by an inverted duplication of the distal 20p segment due to rejoining of sister chromatids and the activation of a neocentromere within 20p12. This inv dup(20p) marker chromosome lacks detectable centromeric alpha-satellite and pericentric satellite III sequences, or centromere protein CENP-B. Functional activity of the neocentromere is evidenced by its association with 5 different, functionally critical centromere proteins: CENP-A, CENP-C, CENP-E, CENP-F, and INCENP. Formation of a neocentromere on human chromosome 20 has not been reported previously and in this context represents a new mechanism for the origin of dup(20p) syndrome.
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16/1441. De novo complete trisomy 5p: clinical report and FISH studies.

    We describe a de novo trisomy 5p in a 1-year-old severely retarded boy. The complete short arm of chromosome 5 segregated as an additional marker chromosome in all metaphases. The marker was identified as 5p by conventional cytogenetic techniques (GTG, GBG, CBG) and molecular cytogenetic techniques (whole chromosome-painting probe, probes for the cri-du-chat region and the centromere, and additionally high-resolution multicolor banding using a chromosome 5-specific dna probe cocktail). The clinical findings were similar to the established trisomy 5p phenotype including macrocephaly, facial abnormalities, tracheobronchial defects with subsequent respiratory infections, hypotonia, and psychomotor retardation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of an isolated complete 5p trisomy without involvement of the aberrant chromosome in any structural chromosomal rearrangements.
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17/1441. Miller-Dieker syndrome and trisomy 5p in a child carrying a derivative chromosome with a microdeletion in 17p13.3 telomeric to the LIS1 and the D17S379 loci.

    trisomy 5p and Miller-Dieker syndromes frequently are the result of unbalanced segregations of reciprocal translocations of chromosomes 5 and 17 with other autosomes. The critical regions for the expression of the mentioned syndromes have been mapped to 5p13-->pter, and 17p13.3-->pter. In this report, we describe an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, postnatal growth deficiency, generalized muscular hypotonia, seizures, microcephaly, cortical atrophy, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, cerebral ventriculomegaly, facial anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, pectus excavatum, long fingers, and bilateral talipes equinovarus caused by the presence of a 46,XX,der(17)t(5;17)(p13.1;p13.3)mat chromosome complement. Cytogenetic studies of the family confirmed a balanced reciprocal translocation (5;17)(p13.1;p13.3) in her mother, maternal grandfather, maternal aunt, and a female first cousin. fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on the mother and the proposita using three probes, which map to distal 17p, confirmed the reciprocal translocation in the mother and a terminal deletion in the patient, which resulted in the retention of LIS1 and D17S379 loci and deletion of the 17p telomere. These findings and the phenotype of the proposita, strongly suggest that genes telomeric to LIS1 and locus D17S379 are involved in many clinical findings, including the minor facial anomalies of the Miller-Dieker syndrome.
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18/1441. Case of partial trisomy 2q3 with clinical manifestations of Marshall-Smith syndrome.

    We describe a girl with physical anomalies, accelerated skeletal maturation, failure to thrive, and respiratory difficulties consistent with a diagnosis of Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS). Chromosome analysis showed an inverted duplication of chromosome 2 [46,XX,inv dup(2)(q37q32) de novo] identified by G banding and confirmed by FISH. Several cases of trisomy 2q3 have been reported and established a syndrome, but the present case is the first to be associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and a clinical picture resembling MSS. This raises the possibility that the cause of MSS involves the q3 region of chromosome 2. Few reports of MSS include study of the karyotype, although the chromosomes were apparently normal in those cases where they have been examined. We suggest that karyotyping be undertaken with particular attention to the 2q3 region in patients with suspected MSS. It also would be prudent to assess bone age in all children with trisomy 2q.
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19/1441. Partial trisomy 13q22-->qter and monosomy 18q21-->qter as a result of familial translocation.

    We report on a patient with a partial trisomy of chromosome 13q22-->qter and partial monosomy of chromosome 18q21-->qter showing distinct malformations. The phenotype of this unbalanced karyotype has not been previously described. The proband had a craniofacial dysmorphism, neck pterygium, closed fists with overlapping fingers, cutaneous appendix of the left fist, equinovarus and postaxial hexadactyly of the feet, atrial septum defect, unilateral cryptorchidism and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) the father's karyotype 46,XY.ish t(13;18)(13pter-->13q22::18q21-->18qter; 18pter-->18q21::13q22-->13qter) and the child's 46,XY.ish der(18)(18pter-->18q21::13q22-->13qter)pat were established. The mother's karyotype was normal. A risk of unbalanced offspring in carriers of a balanced reciprocal translocation depends on the length and genetic constitution of the exchanged segments. risk figures should come only from empirical data. A phenotypically normal child with a balanced or normal karyotype could be born in the case of alternate segregation. amniocentesis should therefore be recommended in any further pregnancy.
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20/1441. Maternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 detected prenatally.

    Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) has been associated with a distinct phenotype. We describe the first case of maternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14 detected prenatally, in a pregnancy with mosaicism for trisomy 14 observed in both a chorionic villus sample (CVS) and in amniocytes. Detailed analysis of polymorphic microsatellites showed that the fetus was essentially isodisomic for one of the mother's chromosomes 14 and that recombination had introduced a mid-long arm region of heterodisomy. The fetus, which died in utero at 18 weeks, showed no apparent pathological features. The case demonstrates for the first time a maternal meiosis II non-disjunction of chromosome 14 leading to a trisomic conception which has been incompletely corrected by 'rescue' in the early embryo.
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