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1/4. Transesophageal echocardiography in aortopulmonary communications.

    The assessment of congenital aortopulmonary communications by transthoracic echocardiography may be suboptimal, particularly postoperatively, due to limited acoustic windows. We performed intraoperative transesophageal echocardiograms in six patients with eight proven systemic-pulmonary communications. Diagnosis included truncus arteriosus (1), aortopulmonary window (1), Waterston anastomosis (3), central Gore-Tex shunt (1), and modified left Blalock-Taussig shunt (2). All communications were accurately demonstrated by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The transesophageal technique also provided an assessment of the size of the aortopulmonary communications and the proximal pulmonary arteries. In addition, the gradient across some of the communications could be accurately estimated utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency Doppler. On the other hand, only two of the seven aortopulmonary communications were detected by transthoracic echocardiography. Postoperatively, transesophageal imaging demonstrated unobstructed conduit in five of five patients who underwent conduit repair, as well as intact closure of aortopulmonary communications and concomitant closure of ventricular septal defects.
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2/4. tricuspid atresia with persistent truncus arteriosus.

    The association of tricuspid atresia and persistent truncus arteriosus is a very rare congenital anomaly. We report a newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of tricuspid atresia, in whom associated type II persistent truncus arteriosus was found by postnatal echocardiography. The patient had mild cyanosis and developed heart failure soon after birth. Balloon septostomy was performed to enlarge the interatrial communication. However, her condition rapidly deteriorated and she died of sepsis and heart failure at the age of 14 days.
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3/4. Management of neonatal bronchovenous fistula after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Bronchovenous fistula is occasionally encountered after traumatic lung injury or, in neonates, due to ventilation injuries with high ventilatory pressures. We report a case of massive air embolism associated with a bronchopulmonary venous communication in an infant post-repair of truncus arteriosus. Selective ventilation of the opposite lung for 3 days sealed the fistula.
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4/4. Giant pseudoaneurysm of the right ventricular outflow tract after repair of truncus arteriosus: evaluation by MR imaging and surgical approach.

    One year after surgical repair of the truncus arteriosus, a 1-year 8-month-old boy was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a narrow communication between the RVOT and aneurysm. MRI was useful to evaluate the anatomical and spatial relations between the pseudoaneurysm and the surrounding structures, therefore an appropriate approach was chosen. Thus, a median sternotomy approach was carried out and ordinary central cannulation was feasible to establish a cardiopulmonary bypass. The defect was successfully repaired with reconstruction using a monocuspid outflow patch. MRI provided useful information for deciding the surgical approach.
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