Cases reported "Tuberculoma"

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1/13. Isolated leptomeningeal tuberculoma.

    Intracranial leptomeningeal tuberculoma without evidence of systemic tuberculosis is rarely encountered and is often difficult to diagnose because there are no specific signs or symptoms. A 49-year-old woman, without any past history of tuberculosis, presented with weakness and focal seizures in the right hand. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a leptomeningeal lesion in the left frontoparietal region. All conventional examinations demonstrated no evidence of tuberculous infection. The patient underwent biopsy, and histopathologic examination showed caseating granulomas compatible with tuberculomas. The culture of the surgical specimen grew mycobacterium tuberculosis 4 weeks later. The patient was then actively treated with antituberculous agents for 1 year. Subsequent clinical features and image studies showed the intracranial lesion in resolution. The findings of this case argue in favor of surgical biopsy when intracranial tuberculosis is clinically suspected, even without evidence of systemic tuberculous infection.
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2/13. 'Pseudo' treatment failure of pulmonary tuberculosis in association with a tuberculoma.

    Failure of tuberculosis patients to respond to treatment is usually explained by one or more of five mechanisms: improper drug prescription; patient nonadherence to prescribed therapy; primary or acquired drug resistance; drug malabsorption; and rarely, exogenous reinfection with a drug-resistant isolate. Response to treatment is best measured bacteriologically; two different smear and one culture criteria for failure are widely used. patients meeting either smear, but not culture, criteria for treatment failure may be said to have 'pseudo' treatment failure. Whether a patient can meet both smear criteria for failure, and not have a mechanism for treatment failure nor meet culture criteria, is unknown. A case of 'pseudo' treatment failure is reported in which both smear criteria for failure were met, but no mechanism for failure was proven to be operative.
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3/13. dna-based identification resolved suspected misdiagnosis due to contaminated cytological specimens.

    We report a clinical mishap based on sample contamination of cytological specimens. Bronchial lavage fluid collected from three male patients was submitted to a pathological institute for cytological diagnosis and to the clinical laboratory in the hospital for tuberculosis screening. Cytological slides of two patients were diagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma and lobectomy was carried out on one patient. However, diagnosis of the surgical specimen was tuberculoma. To resolve the discrepancy, genome dna was isolated from patients' blood, cytological slide glasses and the mycobacterial culture tubes. Analysis of mitochondrial hyper-variable sequence and microsatellite revealed sample contamination in the cytological slide of the tuberculoma patient. dna from the mycobacterial culture tubes showed identical results with the cytological slides, suggesting that the contamination occurred at the bed-side. Preservation of part of cytological specimen will be a help to avoid dispute between pathological laboratory and hospital over responsibility of incident.
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4/13. Intramedullary spinal tuberculoma--case report.

    A healthy 33-year-old man presented with an intramedullary tuberculoma of the thoracic spinal cord manifesting as a 2-month history of progressive paraparesis and sphincter dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging showed ring enhancement of the intramedullary thoracic lesion with perifocal edema. General physical examination was unremarkable with no signs of inflammation except for a positive finding by the tuberculin skin test. Total resection of the intramedullary mass was performed through a posterior myelotomy following T11-12 laminectomy. Histological examination revealed a granulomatous lesion that contained Langhans giant cells, inflammatory cells, and caseating necrosis. Acid-fast bacilli staining of the specimens was positive, and cultures grew mycobacterium tuberculosis. Postoperatively, the paraparesis and sphincter dysfunction improved sufficiently for the patient to return to his ordinary activities. Intramedullary spinal tuberculoma is rare, but must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord compression.
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5/13. Oral tuberculosis associated with a treatment with anti-rheumatic drugs.

    BACKGROUND: The use of immunosuppressive medication is a dominant risk factor for infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). methotrexate (MTX) is one of the traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Adalimumab [a human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF-alpha) monoclonal antibody] represent an important advance in the treatment of RA and has been recently come in use. TNF-alpha plays a role in the host defense against mycobacterium tuberculosis and notably in granuloma formation. Infections occur at a high rate among those who use one or the combination of the two medications. METHOD: We examined a female patient that was referred to our department for evaluation and treatment of a granular lesion on the soft palate and uvula, complaining of mild dysphagia. The patient was treated for 4 months with MTX and adalimumab for RA before the oral lesion appeared. RESULTS: The histopathological examination of a specimen of the oral lesion, taken by biopsy, showed a chronic inflammation characterized by tuberculous granulomas. polymerase chain reaction test and culture of a new specimen was positive for M. tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic use of MTX or/and adalimumab for the treatment of RA or few others diseases, can cause oral tuberculosis.
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6/13. The nodular form of local hepatic tuberculosis. A review.

    Local hepatic tuberculosis without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is an uncommon diagnosis. Even less common is the finding of tuberculoma or tuberculous liver abscess without clinical evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere. Since 1950, 21 cases of isolated tuberculoma or tuberculous abscess of the liver have been reported in the world literature. We report an additional two cases, one tuberculoma and one with multiple tuberculous abscesses. The case reports illustrate the difficulty in reaching the correct diagnosis, unsuspected in nearly all cases and most often confused with carcinoma of the liver. The correct diagnosis was made by histology, identification of acid-fast organisms by smear, and by cultures of mycobacterium tuberculosis, but required laparotomy in 19 of the 23 cases. A greater awareness of this rare clinical entity may prevent needless surgical intervention since the vast majority of patients respond well to antituberculous chemotherapy.
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7/13. Endobronchial tuberculosis presenting as asthma.

    Clinical deterioration with features suggestive of asthma was seen in three patients following two to six months of drug therapy of primary tuberculosis. There was a poor clinical response to administered bronchodilators. bronchoscopy in all three revealed culture-negative mycobacterial caseating granulomas. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in good clinical response, with resolution of the asthmatic symptoms and improvement in the expiratory flow rates. In our opinion these patients are clinically compatible with a hypersensitivity response to mycobacteria following antituberculosis therapy and release of tuberculosis antigens. Corticosteroid therapy is appropriate in this form of tuberculous disease.
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8/13. Fatal BCG infection in an immunocompetent girl.

    A 6-year-old girl developed progressive symptoms of increased intracranial pressure starting 5 months after BCG vaccination. Thirteen months later craniotomy revealed an epithelioid cell granuloma of the arachnoid occluding the foramen of Magendie. No tubercle bacilli were found on histological examination. Insertion of a Pudenz shunt relieved the symptoms. Six months later generalized BCG infection developed, and in spite of treatment with ethambutol, rifampicin and isoniazid for 10 weeks, death occurred during an episode of increased intracranial pressure. Mycobacterium BCG could be cultured from several organs. The patient showed no obvious evidence of immuno-deficiency as judged on the basis of previous disease history, particle concentration of granulocytes, B and T lymphocytes in peripheral blood, concentration of immunoglobulins in serum, response of lymphocytes to transformation with mitogens and antigens, and histological findings in the thymus and BCG granulomas.
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9/13. Intracranial tuberculoma: case report and review of the literature.

    A case of multiple intracranial tuberculomas with miliary lesions of the lungs is reported. Atypical clinical presentation; non-specific computed tomographic findings showed large intracranial masses producing a midline shift and progressive neurological deficit necessitating excision of the symptomatic mass. Acid fast bacilli were found in the excised lesion and cultured from biopsy specimens.
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10/13. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system.

    We report on the clinical features, management, and outcome of 27 patients with tuberculous disease of the central nervous system admitted to the london Hospital over six years. Seventeen presented with meningitis, and in nine of these there was bacteriological confirmation of tuberculous disease although acid fast bacilli were only found in the CSF of four patients. This appeared to carry a poor prognosis. There was a high incidence of rifampicin-induced hepatitis. The outcome was satisfactory in six out of seven patients in whom no AFBs were cultured. Eleven patients presented with intracranial tuberculomas but without evidence of systemic TB. The CT scan revealed mass lesions, but only in three patients was the appearance pathognomonic of tuberculoma. However, biopsy can be a hazardous procedure and led to the death of two of our patients. Where possible, surgical intervention should be avoided, and the response to medical treatment assessed by CT scan.
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