Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Hepatic"

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1/15. Acute hepatobiliary tuberculosis: a report of two cases and a review of the literature.

    Two cases of hepatobiliary tuberculosis are described. Case one, the macronodular type of hepatic tuberculosis, presented as pyrexia of unknown origin and was eventually diagnosed by sectional imaging when a mass lesion developed in the liver and aspiration revealed acid-fast bacilli. Case two presented with jaundice due to a hilar bile duct stricture. The patient was successfully treated by repeated bile duct stenting and later chemotherapy for tuberculosis. In both cases previous positive histology or culture would have expedited diagnosis and treatment. Acute hepatobiliary tuberculosis remains a rare disease. Suspicion of the disease and adequate biopsy are important to allow prompt appropriate treatment.
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2/15. Isolated tuberculous hepatic abscess in a non-immunocompromised patient.

    A 38 years old female presented with pain in the epigastrium, jaundice and fever since one and half month. The computerised tomographic scan of the abdomen revealed a multiloculated abscess of the left lobe of liver. The pus drained from the liver abscess at laparotomy showed acid fast bacilli on microscopy. A detailed search failed to identify any other focus of tuberculous infection. The case has been reported for the rarity of isolated hepatic tuberculous abscess and its presentation with jaundice, a rare feature, and to highlight the importance of microscopic or culture diagnosis in a suspected case of pyaemic abscess.
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3/15. Laparoscopic intervention in resistant hepatosplenic tuberculosis presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.

    Hepatosplenic tuberculosis (HST), rarely encountered in surgical practice, is seen in-patients with disseminated tuberculosis. A 20-year-old female presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) was subsequently diagnosed to have lymph-nodal tuberculosis with involvement of liver and spleen. Despite anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) for 3 months, clinical improvement did not occur and fever persisted. Laparoscopic splenectomy and drainage of the hepatic cold abscess were done with favorable results. Smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB), culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis and histopathological examination (HPE) established the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB).
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4/15. Congenital tuberculosis.

    We report a case of congenital tuberculosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in a 8-week-old infant presented with acute abdomen. Liver biopsy showed multiple lymphoepitheloid cell granulomas with Langhans' giant cells and central necrosis. The culture of caseous material from the liver showed mycobacterium tuberculosis . Antituberculous treatment was started. Endometrial biopsy in the asymptomatic mother confirmed the source of infection.
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5/15. Case report of lymph nodal, hepatic and splenic tuberculosis in an hiv-positive patient.

    We describe a case of a male patient, 38 years old, hiv-positive (most recent CD4 count about 259/mm(3)), with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weight loss, and vespertine high fever with chills. His hemogram showed normocytic and normochromic anemia, with a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and gross granulations in the neutrophils. transaminases were normal. bone marrow biopsy evidenced a chronic disease anemia pattern and a lack of infectious agents. Abdominal ultrasound examination showed a normal-size spleen, which exhibited heterogeneous parenchyma and multiple small hypoechoic images, together with small ascites, peripancreatic and para-aortic lymphadenopathy. These findings were confirmed by abdominal CT. The liver was normal in size, but had a hyperechoic image, which was not visualized on CT. Histopathological analysis of one of the multiple abdominal lymph nodes obtained by laparoscopic biopsy exhibited a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process, with caseous necrosis. Tissue sections were positive for BAAR (acid-alcohol-resistant bacillus), and the cultures were positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculosis treatment was begun, and the patient evolved with improvement of his general state, fever remission and weight gain. Splenic tuberculosis is a rare disease, occurring predominantly in patients in late stages of AIDS and/or disseminated tuberculosis. It is a difficult diagnosis, since there are no specific findings. Hence, complementary examinations, such as abdominal ultrasound/ CT, or fine needle aspiration, are usually necessary for investigation and differential diagnosis. Often, lesion regression after anti-tuberculosis regimens can be seen, and splenectomy is restricted to complicated or refractory disease.
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6/15. The nodular form of local hepatic tuberculosis. A review.

    Local hepatic tuberculosis without active pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis is an uncommon diagnosis. Even less common is the finding of tuberculoma or tuberculous liver abscess without clinical evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere. Since 1950, 21 cases of isolated tuberculoma or tuberculous abscess of the liver have been reported in the world literature. We report an additional two cases, one tuberculoma and one with multiple tuberculous abscesses. The case reports illustrate the difficulty in reaching the correct diagnosis, unsuspected in nearly all cases and most often confused with carcinoma of the liver. The correct diagnosis was made by histology, identification of acid-fast organisms by smear, and by cultures of mycobacterium tuberculosis, but required laparotomy in 19 of the 23 cases. A greater awareness of this rare clinical entity may prevent needless surgical intervention since the vast majority of patients respond well to antituberculous chemotherapy.
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7/15. Tuberculous pseudotumour of the liver developing during antituberculous chemotherapy.

    A 29-year-old Chinese woman presented with a liver mass 2 months after initiation of chemotherapy for disseminated tuberculosis. A percutaneous liver biopsy revealed tuberculous pseudotumour. Although acid-fast bacilli were seen in the biopsy specimen, no organism could be cultured. No changes were made in the antituberculous chemotherapy, and the mass subsequently resolved. The patient was still well 18 months after presentation. To the authors' knowledge, the features of tuberculous pseudotumour seen with ultrasonography and computerized tomography have not previously been described, nor has this condition previously been reported in patients already receiving antituberculous chemotherapy.
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8/15. Tuberculosis of the liver in end stage renal disease under treatment with hemodialysis.

    We present a patient with end stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis, who developed prolonged fever and hepatomegaly. A laparotomy and culture of liver microabscesses led to the diagnosis of tuberculosis of the liver. A complete clinical response was achieved with a course of isoniazid and rifampin.
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9/15. Report of tuberculous hepatitis presenting as metastatic disease.

    This is a case report of macronodular TB of the liver, without other known organ involvement, which presented with defects on RN scan and hypoechoic areas by ultrasound, suggesting metastatic disease. The demonstration on liver scan is quite rare and ultrasound visualization has not been reported. Although confirmation could not be obtained with AFB stain or positive culture, the clinical and liver scan response with a highly suggestive histologic picture are sufficient to make the diagnosis.
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10/15. Primary tuberculosis of the liver-a case report.

    Primary hepatic tuberculosis is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. We report a case and briefly review the literature. Criteria for the diagnosis include evidence of a recent tuberculous infection, demonstration of tuberculosis in the liver with or without local lymph node involvement and absence of older tuberculous lesions elsewhere. Liver biopsy and culture is the investigation of choice, together with clinical and radiological exclusion of extrahepatic disease.
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