Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Lymph Node"

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1/11. Dual infection with atypical mycobacteria and mycobacterium tuberculosis causing cervical lymphadenopathy in a child.

    The most common presentation of mycobacterial infection encountered in otolaryngological practice is cervical lymphadenitis. We report a child with an unusual cause of cervical lymphadenopathy, i.e. dual tuberculous infections. This had clinical ramifications as, initially Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare was grown in culture and was resistant to standard anti-tuberculous agents, and hence treated with excision of the lymph node. However, the cultures from the excised lymph node grew out mycobacterium tuberculosis that was sensitive to standard anti-tuberculous drugs. To our knowledge, no such presentation has been reported previously. We also review the literature on cervical lymphadenitis due to atypical mycobacteria and mycobacterium tuberculosis, with particular emphasis on clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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2/11. Human infections due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum.

    Three cases of human disease due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum are reported. In the first, the mycobacterium was responsible for chronic pulmonary disease in an elderly woman; in the second, it gave rise to cervical lymphadenitis in a child; and in the third, it caused a liver abscess in a young AIDS patient.
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ranking = 7.4940964076137
keywords = mycobacterium
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3/11. Atypical mycobacterial tuberculosis--a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma? case reports and review of the literature.

    In immunocompetent preschool children cervical lymphadenitis is a common clinical presentation of atypical mycobacteria. Its rapid diagnosis and treatment is still a challenge, because accurate diagnostic procedures for atypical mycobacteria are still not yet available in routine practice. Two children suffered from craniojugular (16 months old girl) and infraauricular (2.5 years old boy) located neck masses which showed resistance to the medical treatment. In the first case an abscess splitting took place initially, followed by an anti-tubercular drug treatment and necessary surgical reintervention. In the second case surgical removal of all involved lymph nodes, infiltrated surrounding soft tissue and involved skin areas were followed by medical treatment. In both cases presumed infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis was not confirmed, but atypical mycobacteria could be isolated both. In the first case atypical mycobacterium could be specified as mycobacterium avium complex and in the second case as mycobacterium malmoense. Both bacilli showed sensitivity towards medical treatment with clarithromycin, whereby in one case only the surgical reintervention led to a complete removal of clinical symptomatic. In cases of presumed tuberculous neck lymph node infections differential diagnosis of an atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis should always be supposed, because medical and surgical treatment differ fundamentally.
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ranking = 41.631623642464
keywords = mycobacterium avium, mycobacterium, avium
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4/11. mycobacterium bovis versus mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of acute cervical lymphadenitis without pulmonary disease.

    Bovine tuberculosis remains a common disease of cattle in countries such as mexico. Children eating unpasteurized dairy products from Mexican cattle can develop mycobacterium bovis cervical lymphadenitis. However, the bovine mycobacterium can be misdiagnosed as mycobacterium tuberculosis based on standard laboratory testing. Accurate speciation is important for selection of the preferred antibiotic regimen for treatment of mycobacterium bovis infection.
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ranking = 7.4940964076137
keywords = mycobacterium
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5/11. Successive development of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, leucocytoclastic vasculitis and Sweet's syndrome in a patient with cervical lymphadenitis caused by mycobacterium fortuitum.

    mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found in soil and water throughout the world. It can cause diseases in immunocompetent patients, usually resulting in localized skin and soft tissue infections. Cervical lymphadenitis caused by M. fortuitum is rare. We report a 46-year-old woman in whom skin lesions of cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, leucocytoclastic vasculitis and Sweet's syndrome had successively developed before the diagnosis of cervical lymphadenitis caused by M. fortuitum was made. The skin lesions responded to colchicine and systemic corticosteroids but recurred intermittently. After establishment of the diagnosis, she received treatment with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. The cervical lymph nodes decreased in size 6 months later and no more new skin lesions were found.
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ranking = 7.4940964076137
keywords = mycobacterium
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6/11. Mycobacterium avium intracellularae complex associated extrapulmonary axillary lymphadenitis in a HIV-seropositive infant--a rare case report.

    opportunistic infections by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex in HIV infected patients, though common in adults, are rarely seen in infants. We herewith report an interesting case of an eight month old infant presenting with isolated axillary lymphadenitis, later on diagnosed to be tubercular lymphadenitis by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare and finally proved to be seropositive for HIV infection born to previously undetected HIV seropositive parents.
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ranking = 6
keywords = avium
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7/11. polymerase chain reaction to identify mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with tuberculous lymphadenopathy.

    Tuberculous lymphadenopathy is often diagnosed and treated on clinical and cytopathological grounds as mycobacterium tuberculosis remains undetected in tissue specimens from such patients. At times, lymph nodes are known to respond sluggishly to and reappear during antitubercular therapy. We report a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to confirm the presence of M. tuberculosis in 4 such patients.
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ranking = 29.976385630455
keywords = mycobacterium
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8/11. Cervicofacial mycobacterial infections presenting as major salivary gland disease.

    mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterium are well-known causes of cervical lymphadenopathy, most often presenting without symptoms of systemic infection. These organisms may also directly involve the parenchyma of the major salivary glands and their periglandular or intraglandular nodes. The diagnosis of mycobacterial infections of the major salivary glands, compared to cervical lymph nodes, is equally--if not more--difficult to make. The differential must include the same spectrum of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases as well as lesions unique to the salivary glands. Selected cases are presented and discussed to show that principles established for the treatment of cervical mycobacterial infections must also be applied to major salivary gland infections. In particular, cutaneous fistulas may result from incisional biopsy or incision and drainage of the involved gland. Partial parotidectomy or submaxillary gland excision may be required, followed by multidrug, antituberculous chemotherapy for one to two years. Culturing of the organisms is extremely difficult, and the diagnosis of either mycobacterium tuberculosis or atypical mycobacterial infection must be based on a combination of history and clinical examination, skin testing, histopathology, acid-fast stains, culture, and response to surgery and antituberculous chemotherapy.
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ranking = 14.988192815227
keywords = mycobacterium
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9/11. Cervical lymphadenitis in children: the role of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare.

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are the most frequent cause of mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis in children. Although uncommon, the incidence in recent years has shown a marked increase. Its early differentiation from tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis is essential as the treatment of choice is early surgical excision rather than antituberculous chemotherapy. Three such cases are reported with emphasis on the differential diagnosis and management.
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ranking = 4
keywords = avium
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10/11. Focal mycobacterial lymphadenitis following initiation of protease-inhibitor therapy in patients with advanced hiv-1 disease.

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of hiv-1 protease produce a rapid decrease in plasma hiv-1 rna, with concomitant increases in CD4 T-helper lymphocyte counts. The main side-effects of the protease inhibitors currently in use include gastrointestinal disturbances, paraesthesias, hyperbilirubinaemia, and nephrolithiasis. The increasing use of these agents in patients with advanced hiv-1 infection and CD4 counts of less than 50 cells/microL may be associated with unforeseen adverse effects not observed in earlier studies of patients with higher CD4 counts. methods: Five HIV-infected patients with baseline CD4 lymphocyte counts of less than 50 cells/mL were admitted to the Beth israel Deaconess Medical Center (boston, MA, USA) with high fever (> 39 degrees C), leucocytosis, and evidence of lymph-node enlargement within 1-3 weeks of starting indinavir therapy. informed consent was obtained for studies that entailed CD4 lymphocyte counts, immunophenotyping, isolator blood cultures, and radiological scans. biopsy samples of cervical, paratracheal, or mesenteric lymph nodes were taken for culture and pathology in four patients. FINDINGS: Lymph-node biopsy samples showed that focal lymphadenitis after initiation of indinavir resulted from unsuspected local or disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The prominent inflammatory response to previously subclinical MAC infection was associated with leucocytosis in all patients and with an increase in the absolute lymphocyte counts in four patients. Three patients with follow-up CD4 counts showed two-fold to 19-fold increases after 1-3 weeks of indinavir therapy. immunophenotyping after therapy in two patients showed that more than 90% of the CD4 cells were of the memory phenotype. INTERPRETATION: The initiation of indinavir therapy in patients with CD4 counts of less than 50 cells/mL and subclinical MAC infection may be associated with a severe illness, consisting of fever (> 39 degrees C), leucocytosis, and lymphadenitis (cervical, thoracic, or abdominal). The intense inflammatory reactions that make admission to hospital necessary may be secondary to significant numbers of functionally competent immune cells becoming available to respond to a heavy mycobacterial burden. Prophylaxis or screening for subclinical MAC infection, or both, should therefore be done before the beginning of protease-inhibitor therapy in patients with advanced HIV infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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