Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Lymph Node"

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1/24. Supra-sternal notch tuberculous abscess: a report of three cases.

    Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge; its clinical presentation can mimic a wide range of pathological conditions. Here we report on 3 female patients who presented with supra-sternal masses that were suspected clinically to be of thyroid origin. By use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), they were proved to be tuberculous lesions involving the pre-tracheal lymph nodes. Serological examination for hiv-I/II was not reactive in the 3 patients. The patients responded well to a regimen of multi-drug therapy. It is concluded that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid or para-thyroid swellings and that FNAC is a simple, quick and reliable procedure in the diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculous lesions involving the neck.
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2/24. Miliary hepatic tuberculosis not associated with splenic or lung involvement. A case report.

    Miliary hepatic involvement is a frequent finding on autopsy in patients with disseminated tuberculosis. Imaging studies may reveal hepatosplenomegaly and/or parenchymal inhomogeneity and, in a minority of cases, focal lesions, invariably associated with miliary lung disease. An unusual case of disseminated tuberculosis with manifestations of miliary hepatic involvement, abdominal and neck lymphadenopathy on US and CT without any evidence of active disease in the lungs, spleen or other organ, is described.
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3/24. erythema nodosum associated with reactivation tuberculous lymphadenitis (scrofula).

    A 73-year-old African American female presented to our clinic with painful lower extremity lesions of 2 weeks duration. She was in her usual state of health until 3 months prior to presentation when she reported symptoms of fatigue and weakness. She also noticed an enlarging mass on the left side of her neck. She denied fevers, chills, night sweats or cough. Her symptoms were unresponsive to a course of oral dicloxacillin. The neck mass enlarged over 8 weeks and she was referred to our institution for evaluation. CT scan of the neck showed an enlarged lymph node. Ten days prior to her presentation in dermatology, a fine needle aspirate of the enlarging lymph node revealed necrotizing granulomas. Tissue was sent for routine mycobacterial and fungal cultures. Routine blood work, chest radiograph, and a tuberculin skin test were also performed. At the time of her dermatology visit she described the development of multiple new painful, non-pruritic lesions, bilaterally on the lower extremities. She also reported a red crusted area that appeared at the site of her tuberculin test that was placed subsequent to the development of her lower extremity lesions. Her past medical history was significant for Parkinson's disease, hypothyroidism and hypertension. Her current medications included l-thyroxine, estrogen and diltiazem. Her travel history was only remarkable for a trip to jamaica the previous spring. She was born and raised in haiti. She reported a history of a positive tuberculin skin test 20 years ago, but received no therapy. physical examination revealed a 2 x 3 centimeter firm, nontender left lateral neck mass (Fig. 1). Her right forearm revealed an erythematous, ulcerated, indurated plaque 1.5 cm in diameter (Fig. 2.). Her lower extremities revealed tender 0.5 to 1 cm erythematous nodules below the knees bilaterally (Fig. 3). A punch biopsy of a lower extremity nodule revealed a mild pervisacular dermal infiltrate. Within the subcutaneous tissue there was septal widening. There was also a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with a slight admixture of neutrophils within the septa of the fat lobules. There was no evidence of necrotizing vasculitis or collagen necrosis. An acid-fast stain was not performed. The histologic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of erythema nodosum. Her laboratory evaluation including CBC, electrolytes, thyroid studies, angiotensin converting enzyme level and chest radiograph were normal. Approximately 1 week after her dermatological evaluation, the fine-needle aspirate culture grew mycobacterium tuberculosis. A diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis associated with erythema nodosum was confirmed. The patient was started on quadruple therapy of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Her lower limb skins lesions rapidly resolved over the subsequent month and her neck mass also diminished in size. She completed 6 months of antituberculous therapy with complete resolution of her lymphadenopathy.
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4/24. Atypical mycobacterial tuberculosis--a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma? case reports and review of the literature.

    In immunocompetent preschool children cervical lymphadenitis is a common clinical presentation of atypical mycobacteria. Its rapid diagnosis and treatment is still a challenge, because accurate diagnostic procedures for atypical mycobacteria are still not yet available in routine practice. Two children suffered from craniojugular (16 months old girl) and infraauricular (2.5 years old boy) located neck masses which showed resistance to the medical treatment. In the first case an abscess splitting took place initially, followed by an anti-tubercular drug treatment and necessary surgical reintervention. In the second case surgical removal of all involved lymph nodes, infiltrated surrounding soft tissue and involved skin areas were followed by medical treatment. In both cases presumed infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis was not confirmed, but atypical mycobacteria could be isolated both. In the first case atypical mycobacterium could be specified as mycobacterium avium complex and in the second case as mycobacterium malmoense. Both bacilli showed sensitivity towards medical treatment with clarithromycin, whereby in one case only the surgical reintervention led to a complete removal of clinical symptomatic. In cases of presumed tuberculous neck lymph node infections differential diagnosis of an atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis should always be supposed, because medical and surgical treatment differ fundamentally.
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5/24. A case of tuberculous granuloma at the supra-sternal notch that was difficult to differentiate from a thyroid tumor.

    BACKGROUND: Despite a decline after world war ii, the rate of tuberculosis remains higher in japan than in other countries. We report a case of tuberculous granuloma at the supra-sternal notch that was difficult to differentiate from a thyroid tumor. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 75-year-old Japanese woman who was referred to our hospital for further investigations and treatment of an anterior neck tumor, that was diagnosed as a suspected of thyroid malignancy by another institute. The thyroid function and biological data were normal except for an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging studies showed a mass at the supra-sternal notch, and the border between the tumor and the thyroid gland was indistinct. The tuberculosis bacillus group was identified by fine needle aspiration cytology. The patient was treated surgically for tuberculous granuloma, and histopathological findings revealed that the lymph node tuberuculosis had invaded the thyroid gland. We started anti-tuberculous therapy after the operation. The post-operative course was uneventful with good wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: When a markedly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein value are associated with an anterior neck mass, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a rapid, simple and effective diagnostic method for extra-pulmonary tuberculous lesions involving the neck. When there is abscess formation or features of compression, or if the mass cannot be differentiated from a thyroid tumor, combined therapy involving anti-tuberculous agents and surgery must be considered.
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6/24. Management of isolated extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a pregnant patient.

    The worldwide incidence of tuberculosis is increasing, largely as a consequence of both the increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The pulmonary system is typically the primary site of involvement by this infectious disease; however, extrapulmonary disease does occasionally occur. Although uncommon, neck involvement can occur. The usual presentation is bilateral adenopathy from pulmonary dissemination. Tuberculous cervical adenitis in the absence of pulmonary findings is rare. A concurrent diagnosis of pregnancy complicates the treatment of the infected patient. We present a case of isolated, unilateral tuberculous cervical adenitis in a pregnant patient and discuss the multidisciplinary approach necessary for the appropriate management of this unique situation.
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7/24. 4 years' experience of head and neck tuberculosis in a south london hospital.

    In a south london department of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, 33 cases of tuberculosis were diagnosed in 4 years. The most common presentation was cervical adenitis (58%) and in some cases the initial investigations suggested malignant disease. Most of the patients were of non-British origin but none proved to be hiv seropositive. Fine-needle aspiration was positive for tuberculosis in 7 of 19 patients. 21 patients required a surgical procedure for diagnosis.
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8/24. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (108). Tuberculous dactylitis of the thumb, mediastinal and left hilar lymphadenopathy, and probable left cervical lymphadenopathy.

    A five-year-old girl presented with a history of left neck swelling for one week and right thumb swelling for three weeks. Imaging studies revealed a "collar-stud" abscess in the left side of the neck, massive mediastinal lymphadenopathy with a left anterior chest wall abscess, and right thumb dactylitis that was typical of tuberculosis (TB). Surgical drainage of the left neck swelling revealed acid-fast bacilli. Young children are more susceptible to tuberculous infection, and at greater risk of extrapulmonary spread. A child infected with TB indicates recent transmission, usually from an adult. Good contact tracing is essential. Individuals with hiv infection are also at greater risk of TB and atypical mycobacterial infection as well extrapulmonary TB. The clinical and radiological features of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB are discussed, with additional illustrative cases.
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9/24. Scrofuloderma neck with chest wall abscess.

    Cutaneous tuberculosis (TB) is among the uncommon varieties of tuberculosis but it is also on the rise, commensurate with the general resurgence of the disease. A case of scrofuloderma of neck with tuberculous abscess of anterior chest wall is, hereby, reported. The patient presented with a non-healing ulcer of neck with swelling of anterior chest wall, which responded to antituberculous treatment. This complication of scrofuloderma neck is very rare and should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of such lesions.
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10/24. Coexistent cervical tuberculosis and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a single lymph node group: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Primary cervical tuberculosis is uncommon, although its incidence has risen somewhat over the past few years. In this article, we describe a rare case in which the patient developed a dual pathology-cervical tuberculosis and a malignant squamous cell carcinoma-in a group of lymph nodes on one side of the neck. Initially, tuberculosis was diagnosed on the basis of histology and culture. However when the patient did not respond to antituberculous drug therapy, a repeat biopsy detected the second pathology: squamous cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, no such presentation has been previously reported in the world literature. We conclude that repeat biopsy might be required in cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy that do not respond to conventional antituberculous therapy.
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