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1/93. Multifocal bone tuberculosis presenting as a breast mass: CT and MRI findings.

    Chest wall involvement is an uncommon manifestation of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. We present computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case with multifocal musculoskeletal tuberculosis presenting as a breast mass. These radiological modalities are not diagnostic without histopathological confirmation, but they are valuable guides to surgery in defining the extent of disease involvement.
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2/93. Tuberculous osteitis of the cranium: a case report.

    A 3-year old male presented with a 12-month history of painless scalp swellings associated with cough, fever and night sweats. physical examination showed tender, fluctuant, pulsatile right frontotemporal and temporoparietal masses. skull radiographs showed osteolytic skull lesions in the frontal and temporal bones. microscopy of drained caseous material and histology of biopsies from the affected bone edges confirmed tuberculous osteitis. Though there was an initial response to antituberculous agents, the child died after 5 weeks from hepatic failure. Tuberculosis of the skull bones though rare, may become more common with the recent upsurge of tuberculosis worldwide. A high index of suspicion is necessary for early diagnosis and treatment.
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3/93. CT findings in tuberculous otomastoiditis. A case report.

    PURPOSE: Otomastoiditis is a rare but important manifestation of tuberculosis and is well recognizable when information on its clinical course is considered in connection with the radiographic changes. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A patient with a clinical history of chronic otorrhea, resistant to conventional therapy but without dramatic symptoms, was referred for CT examination. RESULTS: CT revealed widespread soft tissue densities in the tympanic cavity and in the mastoid process, with bone erosions in the latter. Surgery and bacteriology confirmed the diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION: CT evidence of widespread bone destruction without clinical signs of aggressive infection should suggest the diagnosis of a mycobacterial process. Early treatment is essential in order to avoid propagation of the disease and lasting loss of function.
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4/93. Reconstruction of upper chest wall defects with a function-preserving pectoralis major muscle flap: case report.

    The pectoralis major muscle or myocutaneous flap has a nearly 100% success rate in reconstructing chest wall defects. Major adverse sequelae resulting from the use of the pectoralis major muscle or myocutaneous flap are rarely reported in the literature. However, the loss of pectoralis major muscle function caused by the detachment of the muscle from its insertion on the humeral bone is of more and more concern. This is a significant loss for manual laborers when the patient tries to handle tools or control heavy machinery. A case of upper sternal osteomyelitis is reported. After wide debridement with partial excision of the sternum, the second and third ribs, the right pleura, and the lung were exposed. A right unilateral pectoralis major muscle flap was transposed to restore the defect. In addition, to preserve the lateral portion of the muscle and its insertion on the humerus, the origin of the lower sternocostal part of the pectoralis major muscle was transposed to the medial clavicle and residual upper sternum. In this way, not only was the chest wall defect reconstructed but the function of the residual pectoralis major muscle was also preserved. Postoperative follow-up at one year demonstrated no arm weakness, no limitation in shoulder range of motion, and no evidence of atrophy of the transposed pectoralis major muscle. Our experience with this function-preserving pectoralis major muscle flap was encouraging and we suggest it be employed in the reconstruction of the upper anterior chest wall.
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5/93. fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET in infectious bone diseases: results of histologically confirmed cases.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in acute and chronic osteomyelitis and inflammatory spondylitis. The study population comprised 21 patients suspected of having acute or chronic osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis. Fifteen of these patients subsequently underwent surgery. FDG-PET results were correlated with histopathological findings. The remaining six patients, who underwent conservative therapy, were excluded from any further evaluation due to the lack of histopathological data. The histopathological findings revealed osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis in all 15 patients: seven patients had acute osteomyelitis and eight patients had chronic osteomyelitis or inflammatory spondylitis. FDG-PET yielded 15 true-positive results. The tracer uptake correlated with the histopathological findings in each case. Bone scintigraphy performed in 11 patients yielded ten true-positive results and one false-negative result. Follow-up carried out on two patients revealed normal or clearly reduced tracer uptake, which correlated with a normalisation of clinical data. In early postoperative follow-up it was impossible to differentiate between postsurgical reactive changes and further infection using FDG-PET. It is concluded that acute and chronic osteomyelitis of the peripheral as well as the central skeleton can be detected using FDG-PET. osteomyelitis can be differentiated from soft tissue infection surrounding the bone. Unlike computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, FDG-PET is not affected by metal implants used for fixing fractures. FDG-PET demonstrated promising initial results with respect to treatment monitoring. Nevertheless, in the early postoperative phase FDG-PET seems to be of limited value owing to unspecific tracer uptake.
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ranking = 1.25
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6/93. Tuberculosis of the skull. A case report and review of the literature.

    A case of tuberculosis of frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones with intracranial extension is presented. The patient had presented with a history of painless left frontal swelling for the previous 7 months. A diagnosis of tubercular etiology was established with the histopathology of the biopsy specimen. The patient was kept on antitubercular treatment for 18 months. She responded well, with a marked resolution of symptoms and radiologic findings. At the end of treatment, there was no clinical or radiological evidence of disease. At 6-month and 1-year follow-ups, there was no evidence of recurrence or reactivation of the disease.
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7/93. cytodiagnosis of tuberculosis of the skull by fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report.

    Close to one-third of the world's population is believed to be infected with tuberculosis, with the vast majority being in the developing world. However, even in the developed world, the incidence of this disease has been steadily increasing. Tuberculosis is very common in the Indian subcontinent, but at the same time tuberculous infection of the skull is rare and very few cases have been reported. We report a child who presented with a swelling of the frontal bone of the skull. Fine needle aspiration yielded the cytological diagnosis of tuberculosis on the basis of a necrotising granulomatous process with acid-fast bacilli detected on Ziehl Neelsen stain. This procedure obviated the need for an operative procedure and the patient responded to anti-tuberculous therapy. As the incidence of tuberculous infection is on the increase, both in the developed and in the developing world, the importance of diagnosis by newer non-invasive techniques like fine needle aspiration cytology cannot be overemphasized. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the world literature.
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ranking = 0.25
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8/93. Retroperitoneal cold abscess with tuberculosis of sacro-iliac joint and pubic bone: a case report of unusual presentation of osteo-articular tuberculosis.

    Tuberculosis involving sacro-iliac joint and pubic bone presenting with massive retroperitoneal abscess is a rare entity. A 29-year-old female presented with history of discharging sinus in the sacrococcygeal region of 2 months duration. Plain x-ray revealed osteolytic lesion in right pubic bone and left sacro-iliac joint. Computed tomography scan revealed massive pus collection in the retroperitoneal region. Pus was drained extraperitoneally. biopsy of the scraping of the abscess wall showed granulation tissue with foreign body type of giant cell. On follow-up the patient was doing well.
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9/93. A case of mycobacterium scrofulaceum osteomyelitis of the right wrist.

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of the case report is to highlight the possibility of osteomyelitis caused by atypical mycobacteria. Such an infection may simulate tuberculous bone infection and yet fail to respond to standard anti-tuberculous drug therapy. CLINICAL PICTURE: A 66-year-old man who suffered from diabetes mellitus presented with osteomyelitis of the right wrist, with extensive synovial swellings of the flexor tendon sheaths. The clinical features, radiological appearances and histology suggested a tuberculous infection, but subsequent culture grew an atypical mycobacterium, mycobacterium scrofulaceum. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: There was good clinical improvement and control of the infection with a regime of kanamycin, ethambutol and ethionamide to which the organism was sensitive. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the need to be aware of the possibility of infection with atypical mycobacteria in cases of suspected tuberculosis of the skeletal system which fail to respond to standard treatment.
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ranking = 0.25
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10/93. Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the scapula.

    Tuberculous osteomyelitis is an uncommon disease entity. We report two cases of tuberculous infection of the scapula, one involving the acromion and one involving the body of the scapula. Tuberculosis is still an important differential diagnosis in unusual or chronic bone conditions.
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