Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Pulmonary"

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1/44. Kala-azar in zambia: first report of two cases.

    Two autochthonous cases of kala-azar, the first such report of the disease from Central and Southern africa, are described. Both patients presented with generalized macules, papules and nodules without ulceration and both also had tuberculosis. Amastigotes were cultured from blood and identified in skin, bone marrow, liver and spleen.
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keywords = bone
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2/44. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas.
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3/44. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis requiring dialysis associated with intermittent rifampicin use: case report.

    Rifampicin is one of the most effective antibiotics used for the treatment of tuberculosis and severe staphylococcal infections. Intermittent administration of high doses of rifampicin has been associated with frequent adverse reactions, including hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, sometimes resulting in acute renal failure. We describe a case of rifampicin-associated acute renal failure, with biopsy findings of tubulointerstitial nephritis; inflammatory cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, which showed immunoreactivity for CD3 and CD5 (T lymphocytes) and for CD68 (macrophages). The patient presented with a very rapid systemic reaction to the offending drug and rapid deterioration of renal function, which required dialysis treatment. The response to rifampicin discontinuation was excellent: no further therapy was required, as renal function began to improve within several days and returned to normal values (serum creatinine 1.17 mg/dl) seven months after the onset of symptoms. When prescribing rifampicin the physician should investigate previous use of the drug, because re-exposure is a critical factor in predicting the possibility of drug-induced acute renal failure.
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ranking = 83.767342663562
keywords = macrophage
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4/44. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to tuberculosis in a child after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    We report the occurrence of tuberculosis in a 10-year-old Taiwanese boy, approximately 4 months after he received a matched-related bone marrow transplantation from his sister for acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. After transplantation, grade III acute graft-versus-host disease developed and the patient was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Marrow failure was noted on day 77 post-transplantation, however, after an episode of herpes zoster infection. Interstitial pneumonia, diagnosed on the basis of chest x-ray and computed tomography findings, occurred on day 120. Histologic examination of an open-lung biopsy specimen showed caseating granulomas and a few acid-fast bacilli. The patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome, despite immediate implementation of antituberculosis therapy. sputum cultures grew mycobacterium tuberculosis 5 weeks later. This report demonstrates that the possibility of tuberculosis needs to be considered in immunocompromised patients, and that appropriate prophylaxis should be instituted in areas where tuberculosis is endemic.
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keywords = bone
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5/44. Familial pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    We report two Japanese families affected by pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, involving an older brother and younger sister in one family and two brothers in the second family. We investigated whether defects in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) underlay susceptibility to MAC in these cases. All of the patients had computed tomographic findings of peripheral nodules and bronchiectasis. pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns of mycobacterial genomic dna restriction fragments revealed that none of the MAC strains isolated from the patients was epidemiologically related to any of the others. Direct sequencing of the complementary dna of the patients' NRAMP1 revealed a nonconservative missense mutation at codon 419 in one patient, which was heterozygous and was not seen in his affected sibling. No variations similar to those found in mice that show susceptibility to MAC were found. The results suggest an underlying genetic defect in host defense rather than exposure to an unusually virulent strain of MAC as the pathogenetic factor in MAC disease; however, alterations in the coding region of NRAMP1 do not appear to explain the susceptibility to MAC.
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ranking = 83.767342663562
keywords = macrophage
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6/44. Reconstruction of upper chest wall defects with a function-preserving pectoralis major muscle flap: case report.

    The pectoralis major muscle or myocutaneous flap has a nearly 100% success rate in reconstructing chest wall defects. Major adverse sequelae resulting from the use of the pectoralis major muscle or myocutaneous flap are rarely reported in the literature. However, the loss of pectoralis major muscle function caused by the detachment of the muscle from its insertion on the humeral bone is of more and more concern. This is a significant loss for manual laborers when the patient tries to handle tools or control heavy machinery. A case of upper sternal osteomyelitis is reported. After wide debridement with partial excision of the sternum, the second and third ribs, the right pleura, and the lung were exposed. A right unilateral pectoralis major muscle flap was transposed to restore the defect. In addition, to preserve the lateral portion of the muscle and its insertion on the humerus, the origin of the lower sternocostal part of the pectoralis major muscle was transposed to the medial clavicle and residual upper sternum. In this way, not only was the chest wall defect reconstructed but the function of the residual pectoralis major muscle was also preserved. Postoperative follow-up at one year demonstrated no arm weakness, no limitation in shoulder range of motion, and no evidence of atrophy of the transposed pectoralis major muscle. Our experience with this function-preserving pectoralis major muscle flap was encouraging and we suggest it be employed in the reconstruction of the upper anterior chest wall.
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keywords = bone
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7/44. Tuberculous gumma following venepuncture.

    An 88-year-old man with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis presented with a 2-year history of an indolent enlarging ulcerated nodule on his left wrist following a venous blood test. skin biopsy of the ulcer showed granulomas, Ziehl-Neelsen stain was negative, and cultures grew mycobacterium tuberculosis. Underlying bone and joint disease was excluded, and the lesion healed completely with 6 months of standard antituberculous treatment. We review the literature on tuberculous gumma following an injury.
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keywords = bone
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8/44. Tuberculosis and lung cancer. An interesting case study.

    This report describes the case of a patient with lung cancer who completely recovered when he was suffering from tuberculosis. Since bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has beneficial effects in certain types of cancer, it was hypothesized that infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis induced an effective response against the tumour. M. tuberculosis-infected blood t-lymphocytes of the patient were cultured with two lung tumour cell lines. t-lymphocytes in vitro remained attached to tumour cells that appeared reduced in number. Moreover, M. tuberculosis isolated from the patient was a strong inducer, in infected macrophages, of the expression of the inducible form of the nitric oxide synthase, that may regulate cytotoxic activity of human macrophages.
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ranking = 167.53468532712
keywords = macrophage
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9/44. Mycobacterial pulmonary infection post allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients are prone to pulmonary infections caused by a wide spectrum of organisms. Since the first bone marrow transplatation (BMT) done in 1983 at the Tata Memorial Hospital, we have recently seen the first case of mycobacterium fortuitum Chelonae complex among 117 BMT (including 90 allogeneic and 27 autologous) patients. The patient was on immunosuppressants for chronic GVHD post allogeneic BMT done for CML-CP. He developed pulmonary mycobacterial infection 13 months post BMT. diagnosis was difficult because of the atypical presentation, negative culture reports, and the presence of multiple pathogens due to immunosuppression. In our case the diagnosis was eventually established after examination of material obtained by bronchoscopy. Patient has shown response to antituberculosis drugs after 2 months. This shows the need to consider atypical mycobacterial infection in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary illness in the post allogeneic BMT setting.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bone
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10/44. pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis and visceral leishmaniasis in an adult hiv negative patient.

    This is a case report of a 29 year old male with pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, and who was initially suspected of having hiv infection, based on risk factor analyses, but was subsequently shown to be hiv negative. The patient arrived at the hospital with fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite, pallor, and arthralgia. In addition, he was jaundiced and had cervical lymphadenopathy and mild heptosplenomegaly. He had interstitial infiltrates of the lung, sputum smears positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis and pneumocystis carinii, and stool tests were positive for strongyloides stercoralis and schistosoma mansoni. He was diagnosed as having AIDS, and was treated for tuberculosis, pneumocystosis, and strongyloidiasis with a good response. The patient did not receive anti-retroviral therapy, pending outcome of the hiv tests. A month later, he was re-examined and found to have worsening hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, fever, and continued weight loss. At this time, it was determined that his hiv ELISA antibody tests were negative. A bone marrow aspirate was done and revealed amastigotes of leishmania, and a bone marrow culture was positive for Leishmania species. He was treated with pentavalent antimony, 20 mg daily for 20 days, with complete remission of symptoms and weight gain. This case demonstrates that immunosuppression from leishmaniasis and tuberculosis may lead to pneumocystosis, and be misdiagnosed as hiv infection. The occurrence of opportunistic infections in severely ill patients without hiv must always be considered and alternate causes of immunosuppression sought.
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