Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Pulmonary"

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1/50. Potential association between calcified thoracic lymphadenopathy due to previous histoplasma capsulatum infection and pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with pulmonary disease due to mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) seen recently at our center, a substantial number have had extensive calcified mediastinal, hilar, and peribronchial lymphadenopathy, a finding historically inconsistent with pulmonary MAC disease. METHOD: We retrospectively studied the frequency of calcified lymphadenopathy in the chest and prevalence of known risk factors for MAC infection in 79 patients with pulmonary MAC disease who were referred to our hospital over a 1-year period. RESULTS: Calcified intrathoracic adenopathy was present in 25 of the 79 patients (32%). Residential histories revealed that 20 of the 25 patients (80%) with such calcified chest adenopathy reported living for substantial periods in the regions indigenous for histoplasma capsulatum. In contrast, the residences of patients without calcified chest adenopathy were more evenly distributed throughout the country. Nineteen of these 25 patients (76%) with calcified chest adenopathy had no known predisposing risk factor for the infection; in contrast, the proportion of patients with no calcified adenopathy who also had no identifiable classic risk factor tended to be lower (32/54, 59%). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, we observed that (1) a large number of patients with pulmonary MAC disease had no identifiable risk factor, (2) calcified chest adenopathy was present in one third of the patients, (3) the residential history of those with calcified adenopathy mirrored the endemic region of histoplasmosis, and, (4) conversely, those patients with pulmonary MAC who lived outside the histoplasmosis belt had no such adenopathy. Thus, we hypothesize that previous fungal infection may predispose the lungs of certain patients to subsequent invasion by MAC, presumably by airway distortion and/or parenchymal damage.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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2/50. Therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with cystic fibrosis and mycobacterial disease.

    cystic fibrosis (CF) patients require higher dosages of many antibiotics. The relapse of tuberculosis in one CF patient, and the repeated growth of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in another, despite conventional therapy, raised the question of whether the serum levels of the antimycobacterial drugs were adequate. Antimycobacterial drug serum concentrations were assayed in 10 CF patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease. serum levels below the proposed target range were seen 2 h after drug intake in the initial four patients treated: for rifampicin in 2/3, ethambutol in 3/4 and for clarithromycin in 2/3 patients, despite standard dosages. Reassays after dose adjustment and assays in six other patients showed that adequate levels were not achieved 4 h after clarithromycin in 3/5, ethambutol in 1/5, ciproflaxacin in 1/2 and ofloxacin in 2/2 patients. The patient with relapse of tuberculosis and the patient with continuous growth of M. avium-intracellulare improved and became culture negative after dose adjustment. Low drug serum levels is one reason for therapy failure in cystic fibrosis patients with mycobacterial disease. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = avium
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3/50. Familial pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    We report two Japanese families affected by pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, involving an older brother and younger sister in one family and two brothers in the second family. We investigated whether defects in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) underlay susceptibility to MAC in these cases. All of the patients had computed tomographic findings of peripheral nodules and bronchiectasis. pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns of mycobacterial genomic dna restriction fragments revealed that none of the MAC strains isolated from the patients was epidemiologically related to any of the others. Direct sequencing of the complementary dna of the patients' NRAMP1 revealed a nonconservative missense mutation at codon 419 in one patient, which was heterozygous and was not seen in his affected sibling. No variations similar to those found in mice that show susceptibility to MAC were found. The results suggest an underlying genetic defect in host defense rather than exposure to an unusually virulent strain of MAC as the pathogenetic factor in MAC disease; however, alterations in the coding region of NRAMP1 do not appear to explain the susceptibility to MAC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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4/50. Mycobacterium heckeshornense sp. nov., A new pathogenic slowly growing Mycobacterium sp. Causing cavitary lung disease in an immunocompetent patient.

    A pathogenic scotochromogenic mycobacterium xenopi-like organism was isolated from the lung of an immunocompetent young woman. This pathogen caused severe bilateral cavitary lung disease, making two surgical interventions necessary after years of chronic disease. This case prompted us to characterize this mycobacterium by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate contained chemotaxonomic markers which were typical for the genus Mycobacterium, i.e., the meso isomer of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, and galactose as diagnostic whole-cell sugars, MK-9(H(2)) as the principal isoprenoid quinone, a mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates, ketomycolates, and wax ester mycolates, unbranched saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plus a significant amount of tuberculostearic acid, and small amounts of a C(20:0) secondary alcohol. On the basis of its unique 16S rRNA and 16S-23S spacer gene sequences, we propose that the isolate should be assigned to a new species, Mycobacterium heckeshornense. This novel species is phylogenetically closely related to M. xenopi. The type strain of M. heckeshornense is strain S369 (DSM 44428(T)). The GenBank accession number of the 16S rRNA gene of M. heckeshornense is AF174290.
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ranking = 10.009829807513
keywords = mycobacterium
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5/50. death associated with rifampin and pyrazinamide 2-month treatment of latent mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    We present the case of an elderly patient who died of fulminant hepatic failure in the course of receiving 2 months of treatment with pyrazinamide and rifampin for his latent tuberculosis. This 2-month course of treatment for latent tuberculosis is one of four options recently recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We discuss the safety of using this two-drug regimen to treat latent tuberculosis in stable elderly patients.
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ranking = 40.039319230051
keywords = mycobacterium
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6/50. mycobacterium kansasii causing carpal tunnel syndrome with concomitant pulmonary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    mycobacterium kansasii is an uncommon cause of infection of the hand. Other atypical mycobacteria that cause hand infections are M marinium, M avium, M intracellularis, and M chelonei. Such infections usually occur around aquatic areas, though sometimes the source of infection is elusive. Inoculation of the atypical mycobacterium into the host occurs usually from a traumatic break in the skin. patients commonly report a history of fish tank cleaning, oyster shucking, swinuning, or other aquatic activities. Several drug regimenshave been suggested and used successfully. Surgical intervention is occasionally required for unresponsive or symptomatic cases. Concomitant hand infection and pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare. We present a case report of M kansasii infection of the hand and forearm, with carpal tunnel syndrome complicated by concomitant pulmonary M tuberculosis.
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ranking = 10.209829807513
keywords = mycobacterium, avium
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7/50. Isolated pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case reports and literature review.

    We report 4 cases of isolated pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and review the 20 previously reported cases in the human immunodeficiency virus literature. All 4 patients had acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 3 were believed to have had an immune reconstitution syndrome as a cause of MAC infection. Two patients underwent bronchoscopy with biopsy, revealing endobronchial lesions and granuloma formation, and all 4 patients responded well to MAC therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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8/50. Endobronchial lesions involved in Mycobacterium avium infection.

    Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) has been described traditionally as an opportunistic organism that causes disseminated disease in the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive population and that acts as a pulmonary pathogen in patients with underlying lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or previously diagnosed tuberculosis. Pulmonary involvement of M. avium may range from asymptomatic colonization of the airway to invasive parenchymal or cavitary disease. However, endobronchial lesions involved in M. avium infection are rare in either immunocompetent or immunosuppressed hosts. We report here endobronchial mycobacterial infection in a hiv-negative patient.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = avium
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9/50. mycobacterium bovis versus mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of acute cervical lymphadenitis without pulmonary disease.

    Bovine tuberculosis remains a common disease of cattle in countries such as mexico. Children eating unpasteurized dairy products from Mexican cattle can develop mycobacterium bovis cervical lymphadenitis. However, the bovine mycobacterium can be misdiagnosed as mycobacterium tuberculosis based on standard laboratory testing. Accurate speciation is important for selection of the preferred antibiotic regimen for treatment of mycobacterium bovis infection.
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ranking = 10.009829807513
keywords = mycobacterium
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10/50. Potential interactions between irinotecan and rifampin in a patient with small-cell lung cancer.

    This report describes a patient with small-cell lung cancer who was infected with both mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterium. He received irinotecan plus cisplatin, with and without rifampin. rifampin slightly reduced the conversion of irinotecan to 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), as determined by pharmacokinetic analysis. rifampin may influence the metabolism and toxicity of irinotecan to some extent. However, there are possibilities to control M. tuberculosis and mycobacterium avium complex infections in patients with small-cell lung cancer by using rifampin in combination with irinotecan plus cisplatin.
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ranking = 10.209829807513
keywords = mycobacterium, avium
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