Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Pulmonary"

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1/103. Potential association between calcified thoracic lymphadenopathy due to previous histoplasma capsulatum infection and pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with pulmonary disease due to mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) seen recently at our center, a substantial number have had extensive calcified mediastinal, hilar, and peribronchial lymphadenopathy, a finding historically inconsistent with pulmonary MAC disease. METHOD: We retrospectively studied the frequency of calcified lymphadenopathy in the chest and prevalence of known risk factors for MAC infection in 79 patients with pulmonary MAC disease who were referred to our hospital over a 1-year period. RESULTS: Calcified intrathoracic adenopathy was present in 25 of the 79 patients (32%). Residential histories revealed that 20 of the 25 patients (80%) with such calcified chest adenopathy reported living for substantial periods in the regions indigenous for histoplasma capsulatum. In contrast, the residences of patients without calcified chest adenopathy were more evenly distributed throughout the country. Nineteen of these 25 patients (76%) with calcified chest adenopathy had no known predisposing risk factor for the infection; in contrast, the proportion of patients with no calcified adenopathy who also had no identifiable classic risk factor tended to be lower (32/54, 59%). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, we observed that (1) a large number of patients with pulmonary MAC disease had no identifiable risk factor, (2) calcified chest adenopathy was present in one third of the patients, (3) the residential history of those with calcified adenopathy mirrored the endemic region of histoplasmosis, and, (4) conversely, those patients with pulmonary MAC who lived outside the histoplasmosis belt had no such adenopathy. Thus, we hypothesize that previous fungal infection may predispose the lungs of certain patients to subsequent invasion by MAC, presumably by airway distortion and/or parenchymal damage.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium complex, avium, complex
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2/103. Therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with cystic fibrosis and mycobacterial disease.

    cystic fibrosis (CF) patients require higher dosages of many antibiotics. The relapse of tuberculosis in one CF patient, and the repeated growth of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in another, despite conventional therapy, raised the question of whether the serum levels of the antimycobacterial drugs were adequate. Antimycobacterial drug serum concentrations were assayed in 10 CF patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease. serum levels below the proposed target range were seen 2 h after drug intake in the initial four patients treated: for rifampicin in 2/3, ethambutol in 3/4 and for clarithromycin in 2/3 patients, despite standard dosages. Reassays after dose adjustment and assays in six other patients showed that adequate levels were not achieved 4 h after clarithromycin in 3/5, ethambutol in 1/5, ciproflaxacin in 1/2 and ofloxacin in 2/2 patients. The patient with relapse of tuberculosis and the patient with continuous growth of M. avium-intracellulare improved and became culture negative after dose adjustment. Low drug serum levels is one reason for therapy failure in cystic fibrosis patients with mycobacterial disease. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended.
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ranking = 3.5402121945221
keywords = avium-intracellulare, intracellulare, avium
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3/103. mycobacterium xenopi infection of a 50-year-old oil plombage complicated by bronchopleural and pleurocutaneous fistulas.

    We report the rare combination of simultaneous bronchopleural and pleurocutaneous fistulas 50 years after oil plombage, together with infection of both the plombage and the contralateral lung with mycobacterium xenopi. Our case documents imaging patterns of complex fistula formation and subsequent infection resulting from oil plombage. Our case also emphasizes the infectious potential of mycobacterium xenopi.
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ranking = 0.00027155115930627
keywords = complex
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4/103. immunoglobulin a nephropathy complicating pulmonary tuberculosis.

    A 31-year-old man who presented with smear- and culture-negative pulmonary tuberculosis had associated macroscopic hematuria, elevation of serum creatinine and immunoglobulin a (IgA) levels, overt proteinuria, and peripheral edema. Renal biopsy revealed focal mesangial proliferation with IgA deposits, and a diagnosis of IgA nephropathy was made. The patient received treatment with isoniazide and rifampin. After 4 months, pulmonary lesions were almost completely healed, and a significant improvement of creatinine clearance with normalization of serum creatinine and IgA levels and disappearance of proteinuria were observed. Treatment with isoniazide and rifampin was discontinued after 6 months, without reappearance of either pulmonary or renal symptoms. Two years after the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy, the patient is in good general condition. serum creatinine and IgA levels are normal, proteinuria is absent, and there is neither macrohematuria nor microhematuria. These findings suggest that IgA nephropathy may be a consequence of tuberculosis, possibly due to an abnormal IgA-mediated immune response against mycobacterium tuberculosis with formation of nephrotoxic immune complexes.
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ranking = 0.00027155115930627
keywords = complex
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5/103. Familial pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    We report two Japanese families affected by pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, involving an older brother and younger sister in one family and two brothers in the second family. We investigated whether defects in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) underlay susceptibility to MAC in these cases. All of the patients had computed tomographic findings of peripheral nodules and bronchiectasis. pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns of mycobacterial genomic dna restriction fragments revealed that none of the MAC strains isolated from the patients was epidemiologically related to any of the others. Direct sequencing of the complementary dna of the patients' NRAMP1 revealed a nonconservative missense mutation at codon 419 in one patient, which was heterozygous and was not seen in his affected sibling. No variations similar to those found in mice that show susceptibility to MAC were found. The results suggest an underlying genetic defect in host defense rather than exposure to an unusually virulent strain of MAC as the pathogenetic factor in MAC disease; however, alterations in the coding region of NRAMP1 do not appear to explain the susceptibility to MAC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium complex, avium, complex
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6/103. Hard metal lung disease--the first case in singapore.

    INTRODUCTION: We report the first case of hard metal lung disease in singapore and the occupational investigative work and control measures that were undertaken. CLINICAL PICTURE: A 38-year-old machinist in the tool manufacturing industry presented with exertional dyspnoea and cough. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates with honeycombing. High resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax confirmed the presence of interstitial fibrosis. Open biopsy of the lung showed features of pneumoconiosis. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, a relatively new elemental analysis technique, performed on the lung biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of tungsten and titanium; and he was diagnosed to have hard metal lung disease. Microbiologic, serologic and histologic investigations excluded an infective cause. Serial pulmonary function tests on follow-up showed no progression. He presented with haemoptysis 10 months later and was diagnosed to have tuberculosis on the basis of positive sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. TREATMENT: Preventive measures and permanent transfer to non-cobalt work were instituted. OUTCOME: The interstitial fibrosis appears to have stabilised. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of hard metal lung disease must be considered in a worker exposed to cobalt presenting with interstitial fibrosis.
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ranking = 0.00027155115930627
keywords = complex
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7/103. Mycobacterium heckeshornense sp. nov., A new pathogenic slowly growing Mycobacterium sp. Causing cavitary lung disease in an immunocompetent patient.

    A pathogenic scotochromogenic mycobacterium xenopi-like organism was isolated from the lung of an immunocompetent young woman. This pathogen caused severe bilateral cavitary lung disease, making two surgical interventions necessary after years of chronic disease. This case prompted us to characterize this mycobacterium by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate contained chemotaxonomic markers which were typical for the genus Mycobacterium, i.e., the meso isomer of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, and galactose as diagnostic whole-cell sugars, MK-9(H(2)) as the principal isoprenoid quinone, a mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates, ketomycolates, and wax ester mycolates, unbranched saturated and unsaturated fatty acids plus a significant amount of tuberculostearic acid, and small amounts of a C(20:0) secondary alcohol. On the basis of its unique 16S rRNA and 16S-23S spacer gene sequences, we propose that the isolate should be assigned to a new species, Mycobacterium heckeshornense. This novel species is phylogenetically closely related to M. xenopi. The type strain of M. heckeshornense is strain S369 (DSM 44428(T)). The GenBank accession number of the 16S rRNA gene of M. heckeshornense is AF174290.
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ranking = 9.0421034664846
keywords = mycobacterium
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8/103. Lichen scrofulosorum.

    A 12-month-old boy with pulmonary tuberculosis developed a papular lichenoid eruption which showed epithelioid granulomas on histology, consistent with lichen scrofulosorum. Stains and cultures for mycobacteria in the skin were negative, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis failed to detect the dna of mycobacterium tuberculosis in a skin biopsy specimen, thus making lichen scrofulosorum one of the remaining manifestations of M. tuberculosis infection in which evidence of the bacillus has not been found to date. Lichen scrofulosorum is now considered a rare form of tuberculid but should not be neglected.
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ranking = 0.016021479418681
keywords = bacillus
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9/103. Papulonecrotic tuberculid--a rare skin manifestation in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Papulonecrotic tuberculid (PNT), a cutaneous manifestation of tuberculosis, is rare even in areas endemic for tuberculosis such as taiwan. Concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis is uncommon in patients with PNT. We describe a patient with rare skin manifestations and simultaneous pulmonary tuberculosis. This 48-year-old woman had suffered from productive cough for 4 months, and pea-sized papules with central umbilication were noted over the extensor surface of her four extremities and lower abdomen 1 month prior to admission to our hospital. Chest roentgenography showed reticulonodular lesions with small cavitation over the lower right lung field, and sputum culture yielded mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PNT was diagnosed using the skin biopsy results and the papules healed with scar formation after antituberculous therapy.
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ranking = 0.00027155115930627
keywords = complex
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10/103. Tuberculosis and lung cancer. An interesting case study.

    This report describes the case of a patient with lung cancer who completely recovered when he was suffering from tuberculosis. Since bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has beneficial effects in certain types of cancer, it was hypothesized that infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis induced an effective response against the tumour. M. tuberculosis-infected blood t-lymphocytes of the patient were cultured with two lung tumour cell lines. t-lymphocytes in vitro remained attached to tumour cells that appeared reduced in number. Moreover, M. tuberculosis isolated from the patient was a strong inducer, in infected macrophages, of the expression of the inducible form of the nitric oxide synthase, that may regulate cytotoxic activity of human macrophages.
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ranking = 0.016021479418681
keywords = bacillus
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