Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Pulmonary"

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21/928. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation patients.

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients are prone to bacterial, viral and fungal infections. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can occur in these patients, but the incidence is lower than that of other infections. This report describes four patients with mycobacterium tuberculosis infection identified from 641 adult patients who received a BMT over a 12-year period (prevalence 0.6%). The pre-transplant diagnosis was AML in two patients and CML in the other two. Pre-transplant conditioning consisted of BU/CY in three patients and CY/TBI in one. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was MTX/CsA in three patients and T cell depletion of the graft in one patient. Sites of infection were lung (two), spine (one) and central nervous system (one). Onset of infection ranged from 120 days to 20 months post BMT. Two patients had co-existing CMV infection. One patient had graft failure. The two patients who received anti-tuberculous (TB) therapy recovered from the infection. Although the incidence of tuberculosis in BMT patients is not as high as in patients with solid organ transplants, late diagnosis due to the slow growth of the bacterium can lead to delay in instituting anti-TB therapy. A high index of suspicion should be maintained, particularly in endemic areas.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tuberculosis
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22/928. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis requiring dialysis associated with intermittent rifampicin use: case report.

    Rifampicin is one of the most effective antibiotics used for the treatment of tuberculosis and severe staphylococcal infections. Intermittent administration of high doses of rifampicin has been associated with frequent adverse reactions, including hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, sometimes resulting in acute renal failure. We describe a case of rifampicin-associated acute renal failure, with biopsy findings of tubulointerstitial nephritis; inflammatory cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, which showed immunoreactivity for CD3 and CD5 (T lymphocytes) and for CD68 (macrophages). The patient presented with a very rapid systemic reaction to the offending drug and rapid deterioration of renal function, which required dialysis treatment. The response to rifampicin discontinuation was excellent: no further therapy was required, as renal function began to improve within several days and returned to normal values (serum creatinine 1.17 mg/dl) seven months after the onset of symptoms. When prescribing rifampicin the physician should investigate previous use of the drug, because re-exposure is a critical factor in predicting the possibility of drug-induced acute renal failure.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = tuberculosis
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23/928. Malakoplakia and tuberculosis.

    A 33 year old woman developed a soft mass in the left anterior neck following treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. An incisional biopsy was performed and a cold abscess drained. histology confirmed a diagnosis of tuberculosis. In addition, there were numerous intracellular bodies which resembled the Michaelis-Gutmann bodies of malakoplakia. This case however displayed some atypical histological, histochemical and ultrastructural features, which are highlighted in this report. The mass responded to combination antituberculous treatment.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = tuberculosis
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24/928. Therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with cystic fibrosis and mycobacterial disease.

    cystic fibrosis (CF) patients require higher dosages of many antibiotics. The relapse of tuberculosis in one CF patient, and the repeated growth of mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in another, despite conventional therapy, raised the question of whether the serum levels of the antimycobacterial drugs were adequate. Antimycobacterial drug serum concentrations were assayed in 10 CF patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease. serum levels below the proposed target range were seen 2 h after drug intake in the initial four patients treated: for rifampicin in 2/3, ethambutol in 3/4 and for clarithromycin in 2/3 patients, despite standard dosages. Reassays after dose adjustment and assays in six other patients showed that adequate levels were not achieved 4 h after clarithromycin in 3/5, ethambutol in 1/5, ciproflaxacin in 1/2 and ofloxacin in 2/2 patients. The patient with relapse of tuberculosis and the patient with continuous growth of M. avium-intracellulare improved and became culture negative after dose adjustment. Low drug serum levels is one reason for therapy failure in cystic fibrosis patients with mycobacterial disease. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = tuberculosis
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25/928. Immune mediated 'HAART' attack during treatment for tuberculosis. Highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses viral replication and improves immune function. However the inflammatory component of immune restoration can have clinically deleterious effects on previously asymptomatic infections. We report the development of acute respiratory failure in a patient after the institution of HAART, following 2 months of appropriate therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Necrotizing granulomas with acid-fast bacilli were found on lung biopsy, but cultures were negative for mycobacterium tuberculosis and no other pathogens were isolated. polymerase chain reaction of lung biopsy tissue for all mycobacterial species was positive only for M. tuberculosis. Rapid clinical improvement followed corticosteroid therapy. After initiating HAART, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of an inflammatory response to a previously quiescent tuberculous infection, even while on antituberculosis therapy.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = tuberculosis
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26/928. immunoglobulin a nephropathy complicating pulmonary tuberculosis.

    A 31-year-old man who presented with smear- and culture-negative pulmonary tuberculosis had associated macroscopic hematuria, elevation of serum creatinine and immunoglobulin a (IgA) levels, overt proteinuria, and peripheral edema. Renal biopsy revealed focal mesangial proliferation with IgA deposits, and a diagnosis of IgA nephropathy was made. The patient received treatment with isoniazide and rifampin. After 4 months, pulmonary lesions were almost completely healed, and a significant improvement of creatinine clearance with normalization of serum creatinine and IgA levels and disappearance of proteinuria were observed. Treatment with isoniazide and rifampin was discontinued after 6 months, without reappearance of either pulmonary or renal symptoms. Two years after the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy, the patient is in good general condition. serum creatinine and IgA levels are normal, proteinuria is absent, and there is neither macrohematuria nor microhematuria. These findings suggest that IgA nephropathy may be a consequence of tuberculosis, possibly due to an abnormal IgA-mediated immune response against mycobacterium tuberculosis with formation of nephrotoxic immune complexes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tuberculosis
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27/928. Extensive transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a child.

    BACKGROUND AND methods: Young children rarely transmit tuberculosis. In July 1998, infectious tuberculosis was identified in a nine-year-old boy in north dakota who was screened because extrapulmonary tuberculosis had been diagnosed in his female guardian. The child, who had come from the Republic of the Marshall islands in 1996, had bilateral cavitary tuberculosis. Because he was the only known possible source for his female guardian's tuberculosis, an investigation of the child's contacts was undertaken. We identified family, school, day-care, and other social contacts and notified these people of their exposure. We asked the contacts to complete a questionnaire and performed tuberculin skin tests. RESULTS: Of the 276 contacts of the child whom we tested, 56 (20 percent) had a positive tuberculin skin test (induration of at least 10 mm), including 3 of the child's 4 household members, 16 of his 24 classroom contacts, 10 of 32 school-bus riders, and 9 of 61 day-care contacts. A total of 118 persons received preventive therapy, including 56 young children who were prescribed preventive therapy until skin tests performed at least 12 weeks after exposure were negative. The one additional case identified was in the twin brother of the nine-year-old patient. The twin was not considered infectious on the basis of a sputum smear that was negative on microscopical examination. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation showed that a young child can transmit mycobacterium tuberculosis to a large number of contacts. Children with tuberculosis, especially cavitary or laryngeal tuberculosis, should be considered potentially infectious, and screening of their contacts for infection with M. tuberculosis or active tuberculosis may be required.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tuberculosis
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28/928. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to tuberculosis in a child after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    We report the occurrence of tuberculosis in a 10-year-old Taiwanese boy, approximately 4 months after he received a matched-related bone marrow transplantation from his sister for acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. After transplantation, grade III acute graft-versus-host disease developed and the patient was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Marrow failure was noted on day 77 post-transplantation, however, after an episode of herpes zoster infection. Interstitial pneumonia, diagnosed on the basis of chest x-ray and computed tomography findings, occurred on day 120. Histologic examination of an open-lung biopsy specimen showed caseating granulomas and a few acid-fast bacilli. The patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome, despite immediate implementation of antituberculosis therapy. sputum cultures grew mycobacterium tuberculosis 5 weeks later. This report demonstrates that the possibility of tuberculosis needs to be considered in immunocompromised patients, and that appropriate prophylaxis should be instituted in areas where tuberculosis is endemic.
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ranking = 1.2857142857143
keywords = tuberculosis
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29/928. Perforation due to ileocaecal tuberculosis.

    A 40-year-old male patient was admitted in the intensive care Unit with complicated pulmonary tuberculosis. After 4 days he developed an acute abdomen with free air as demonstrated on plain abdominal films. A laparotomy was performed and an ileal perforation was found, located just before the ileocaecal valve. A right hemicolectomy was carried out and the resected specimen was send for further patho-anatomical examination. Our suspicion of ileocaecal perforation due to tuberculosis was confirmed. Despite further extensive medical treatment, the patient died 15 days after admission to the hospital. At autopsy, the cause of death was confirmed as being due to fulminant pulmonary tuberculosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tuberculosis
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30/928. Effect of plasma exchange on refractory hemophagocytic syndrome complicated with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    A case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) refractory to corticosteroid therapy was successfully treated by plasma exchange. The patient was a 56-year-old woman who had undergone regular hemodialysis for 10 years for complicated myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and then had had lung tuberculosis. After the onset of tuberculosis, she suffered from HPS and was treated by antituberculosis agents and high dose corticosteroid administration without any effect on the HPS. After adding a series of plasma exchanges, the HPS improved gradually, and her MDS began to respond to corticosteroid therapy. Plasma hypercytokinemia due to HPS was corrected by plasma exchange, and the correction of a high level of plasma inflammatory cytokine was considered to be one of the contributing factors for the improvement of HPS. These results suggest that therapeutic plasma exchange should be considered as a therapeutic tool for HPS refractory to conventional therapy.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = tuberculosis
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