Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Pulmonary"

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1/22. Tuberculosis on the flight deck.

    Tuberculosis in commercial aircraft has been a concern since a 1995 incident of possible transmission from an active case of tuberculosis to passengers in the cabin of a 747. Subsequently, commercial air carriers have been vigilant in cooperating with public health authorities in tracking all known exposures to tuberculosis. In 1998, a pilot of a commercial airliner was diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Company records demonstrated that in the previous 6 mo, the pilot had flown with 48 other pilots. Every exposed pilot was contacted and evaluated by skin testing (IPPD) or chest x-ray if previously positive. There were no skin test conversions and no changes on x-rays. This study demonstrates that transmission of tuberculosis in the aircraft cabin environment, even under close and continuous exposure to an active case, is a rare event.
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2/22. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to tuberculosis in a child after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    We report the occurrence of tuberculosis in a 10-year-old Taiwanese boy, approximately 4 months after he received a matched-related bone marrow transplantation from his sister for acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. After transplantation, grade III acute graft-versus-host disease developed and the patient was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine. Marrow failure was noted on day 77 post-transplantation, however, after an episode of herpes zoster infection. Interstitial pneumonia, diagnosed on the basis of chest x-ray and computed tomography findings, occurred on day 120. Histologic examination of an open-lung biopsy specimen showed caseating granulomas and a few acid-fast bacilli. The patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome, despite immediate implementation of antituberculosis therapy. sputum cultures grew mycobacterium tuberculosis 5 weeks later. This report demonstrates that the possibility of tuberculosis needs to be considered in immunocompromised patients, and that appropriate prophylaxis should be instituted in areas where tuberculosis is endemic.
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3/22. isoniazid-resistant cavitary tuberculosis in a physician following isoniazid prophylaxis.

    Single-drug prophylaxis is recommended after tuberculin skin test conversion, but not when there is active disease on chest radiograph because resistance develops frequently. isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis developed in a physician receiving prophylaxis despite "faint left upper lobe soft tissue density" on chest radiograph. Ignoring active disease on chest x-ray renders this strategy counterproductive and cost ineffective.
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4/22. Tuberculous mediastinal mass presenting with stridor in a 3-month-old child.

    A 3-month-old boy with a history of intermittent stridor was found to have obstructive emphysema on chest x-ray. Further investigations found a mediastinal mass compressing the carina and left mainstem bronchus. The mass was excised and found to be of tuberculous origin.
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5/22. mycobacterium kansasii infection following primary pulmonary malignancy.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the mycobacterium kansasii cases were the consequences of primary lung malignancy. The records and chest x-ray films of 295 patients with M kansasii pulmonary infection were reviewed. The infection was found to complicate the primary lung neoplasm in four cases. Three patients had had treatment for malignancy: one patient with small cell carcinoma received chemotherapy, steroids and radiation; one with adenocarcinoma underwent a lobectomy and radiation; and the third patient had a lobectomy and radiation for malignant fibrohistiocytoma. The fourth patient developed the infection three years after lung malignancy manifested itself, which was only a few months before the clinical evidence of distant metastasis with adenocarcinoma was detected. We suggest that this infection be considered in patients from M kansasii endemic areas, especially after they have received radiation treatment for lung malignancy. This association has never been described before.
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6/22. Miliary tuberculosis associated with multiple intracranial tuberculomas.

    In this study we have reported a 12-year old girl patient who visited out-patient clinic with the history of headache and convulsion. The patient was diagnosed as miliary tuberculosis and multiple brain tuberculomas. Miliary infiltration was observed in chest x-ray and high-resolution thorax computed tomography (CT), and multiple tuberculomas surrounded with wide edema was observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Acid-fast bacilli were detected in inducted sputum and gastric fluid. Focal epileptiform activity was seen in electroencephalography (EEG). The patient was administered antitubercular, anti-edema and antiepileptic therapy. The patient had not experienced convulsion for the second time and EEG had been normal; therefore her treatment was completed within 12 months. Chest x-ray and high-resolution thorax CT findings turned to normal and brain MRI findings improved significantly. As a conclusion, tuberculosis disease has very different clinical pattern depending on the organs it involves. The significance of our case is due to the presence of both the miliary tuberculosis and intracranial tuberculomas. The patient was admitted to the hospital due to central nervous system symtoms rather than pulmonary symptoms.
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7/22. lung scintigraphy with [123I]IMP in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    lung scintigraphy using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed on 26 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Early (5 min after injection) and late images (4 h after injection) were obtained with a large-field gamma-camera equipped with a digital computer. lung scintigraphy using [99mTc]MAA (MAA) was also done. Although early IMP images showed the same findings as [99mTc]MAA, images, a discrepancy between delayed IMP images and [99mTc]MAA images was seen in some patients. Increment of activities seen in late images was demonstrated in most patients whose chest x-ray findings included exudative inflammatory changes. Uptake and clearance of IMP was considered to be affected by the active phase of pulmonary tuberculosis.
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8/22. Coexistent lung carcinoma and active pulmonary tuberculosis in the same lobe.

    We observed a rare case of lung carcinoma accompanied by active pulmonary tuberculosis in the same lobe. The chest x-ray of a 49-year-old man revealed an abnormal shadow in the right upper field and a giant bulla in the left upper field. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a nodule with consolidation, which was not continuous in the right S3. Bronchoscopically, epidermoid carcinoma existed in the proximal right upper bronchus. In the sputum specimens, the smear was negative, but the polymerase chain reaction of mycobacterium tuberculosis and culture was positive. Anti-tuberculosis treatments were administered for approximately 4 weeks, but the chest x-ray remained unchanged. Right upper lobectomy with bronchoplasty (wedge resection of the right upper bronchus) was performed, and the anastomosis was covered with an intercostal muscle flap. Lymphadenectomy of the right hilum and mediastum was also performed. microscopy revealed epidermoid carcinoma in the proximal tumor (pT3N0M0-stage IIB) and epithelioid granuloma with caseous necrosis, granulomatous pneumonia, exudative lesions, and fibrocaseous nodules in the distal lung. After surgery, anti-tuberculosis treatment was resumed.
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9/22. Occurrence and identification of intracellular calcium crystals in pulmonary specimens.

    Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray analysis studies and histochemical techniques have identified unusual birefringent intracellular calcium carbonate crystals seen in the sputum specimens of a 68-year-old man with cavitary pulmonary lesions. He was clinically diagnosed and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. Although other etiologies are possible, we contend that the calcium salt crystals identified in the sputum in this patient represent a peripheral manifestation of tuberculosis which is rarely noticed in the sputum specimens.
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10/22. Unusual ventilation-perfusion patterns in primary lung tuberculosis.

    We report two cases of primary lung tuberculosis in children with unusual perfusion ventilation scintigraphic patterns. In the first case, a mismatch in the right upper lobe suggests an elective compression of the bronchi by the mediastinal lymph nodes; in the second case, the total absence of ventilation and perfusion of the left lobe at scintigraphy illustrates the discrepancy sometimes encountered between chest x-ray and lung scintigraphy.
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