Cases reported "Tuberculosis, Spinal"

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1/5. Atypical forms of spinal tuberculosis: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: The object of this report is to highlight some of the less known atypical features of spinal tuberculosis (TB) in the hope of facilitating early diagnosis. Pure neural arch and sacral TB is rare and the co-existence of these two as widely separated skip lesions in the same patient is even rarer. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An unusual case of tuberculous process affecting the sacrum as well as the neural arches of upper cervical vertebrae is presented. Neither the clinical features nor the imaging techniques, including radiography, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, were helpful in establishing the diagnosis. The destructive lesion of the sacrum with a rectally palpable presacral mass was thought to be a chordoma or chondrosarcoma until the patient developed upper cervical cord compression with an extradural myelographic block. Development of this second destructive lesion involving the posterior spinal elements (the neural arch) led to a diagnosis of malignant spinal metastasis. The true diagnosis was only revealed by the histology of the solid tumor-like extradural mass in the upper cervical region and demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the lesion. Anti-TB chemotherapy resulted in complete resolution of sacral and cervical lesions as well as the neurologic deficits. CONCLUSION: Differential diagnosis of the obscure spinal lesion should include tuberculosis, specifically the atypical forms; especially because complete cure is possible with early treatment and neurologic morbidity is high in neglected cases.
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2/5. Tumor-like tuberculosis of the sacrum.

    Isolated tuberculosis of the sacrum in a 43-year-old woman manifested as functional impairment of the right lower limb. Sacral tuberculosis is rare in patients with no history of tuberculosis. Another unusual feature was the tumor-like aspect of the lesion, with diffuse, ill-defined osteolysis of a large part of the sacrum and extension to the presacral soft tissues responsible for rectal displacement.
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3/5. Sacral tuberculosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: We present a patient with a heterogeneously enhancing lesion within the body of the sacrum and the sacral canal. Sacral tuberculosis (TB) was suspected because of a history of familial exposure. Few cases isolated to the sacrum have been reported in the literature. The characteristic histopathologic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are also presented. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 31-year-old African-American male presented with an 8-month history of lower back pain radiating into his legs as well as numbness and weakness of the right foot. His history revealed PPD conversion following an exposure to active pulmonary TB 3 years prior for which he received 6 months of isoniazid prophylaxis. An MRI scan revealed a large heterogeneously enhancing lesion involving the sacrum with extension into the sacral canal. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT)- guided needle biopsy of the sacral lesion. Cytopathologic examination revealed caseating granulomas. Acid-fast bacilli cultures were positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was placed on a 6-month course of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. At 3-month follow-up, his examination and symptoms had improved. CONCLUSIONS: Sacral TB is an extremely rare cause of lower back pain with radiation into the lower extremities. TB should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated sacral masses, especially in light of today's increasing multidrug resistance and immunosuppressed population.
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keywords = sacrum
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4/5. Unusual presentation of isolated sacral tuberculosis.

    Tuberculosis is as old as mankind. Vertebral tuberculosis is fairly common form of bone and joint tuberculosis. However, isolated sacral tuberculosis is rare. It may present as an atypical sacral lesion having epidural granuloma without destruction of sacrum on MRI and plain x-rays. This atypical presentation may lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This case report intends to emphasize that spinal tuberculosis should be the first and foremost differential diagnosis in the presence of atypical clinical and radiological features of a sacral lesion particularly in developing countries. early diagnosis and treatment can prevent or minimize the neurological morbidity in such cases.
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5/5. Vascularized iliac bone graft based on a pedicle of upper lumbar vessels for anterior fusion of the thoraco-lumbar spine.

    A new option for the use of a vascularized iliac bone graft, based on the upper (first or second) lumbar vessels, has been developed. As a pedicled graft, this supero-posteriorly-based vascularized iliac bone graft can reach the vertebrae from T8 to the sacrum, and the lower sternum and thoracic cage. In this report, the vascular anatomy of the flap and clinical experience using it for anterior spinal fusion are described.
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keywords = sacrum
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