Cases reported "Tuberculosis"

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1/29. Isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterium in a child: a case report and review of the literature.

    Isolated endobronchial lesions caused by Mycobacterium avium are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We share the case of a 10-month-old boy who, after 1 week of cough and low-grade fever, had a radiographic examination showing endobronchial obstruction. At bronchoscopy, a granuloma of the left bronchus intermedius was found. Histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Kinyoun Acid Fast stain revealed acid fast bacilli. Cultures were positive for M. avium. Current treatment options and controversies are presented. The roles of antibiotics and steroids in preventing progressive disease are discussed. The need for serial bronchoscopy and the potential benefits of surgical resection are discussed. Isolated endobronchial M. avium infection remains a rare and challenging problem. The paucity of clinical experience, and variation in patient presentation, obligates a high index of suspicion, and frequent follow-up with bronchoscopic examination and pulmonary assessment, for the child diagnosed with isolated endobronchial atypical mycobacterial infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mycobacterium, avium
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2/29. Fatal sepsis due to mycobacterium tuberculosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious, but rare infectious complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We describe a case of fatal sepsis due to mycobacterium tuberculosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL. The diagnosis was made after BAL. Although broad-spectrum antituberculous therapy was started immediately after diagnosis, blood cultures became positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient developed severe pyrexias and finally died of multi-organ failure. Rapid progression of mycobacterial infection should be considered in patients post BMT with unexplained fever, particularly in patients from endemic areas.
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ranking = 0.97205269784443
keywords = mycobacterium
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3/29. Two cases of long lasting bacteremia due to mycobacterium avium complex despite new macrolides-containing regimens in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    The prognosis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection has been improved by new macrolides-containing regimens and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on two AIDS cases with long lasting bacteremia due to MAC under this regimen. Both patients experienced problems due to side effects from the anti-MAC regimen and from an immune-reconstitution syndrome related to HAART. MAC infection persisted despite treatment, however, no anti-MAC drug-resistant isolates emerged throughout the clinical course in either case. These cases demonstrate that therapy for disseminated MAC infection is sometimes difficult even with HAART and macrolides-containing regimens.
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ranking = 0.046578836925943
keywords = avium
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4/29. Unilateral bronchiectasis and esophageal dysmotility in congenital adult tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEF) in adults are most commonly neoplastic, and very rarely congenital in nature. We report a 45-year-old Hispanic male with TEF and initial presentation of minimal hemoptysis. The patient had radiographic evidence of unilateral upper lobe (RUL) bronchiectasis, massive esophageal dilatation, and dysmotility. However, there was no evidence of esophageal malignancy, achalasia, or Chagas' disease. bronchoscopy revealed a large TEF in the posterior wall of trachea, which was not visualized on esophagram or esophagoscopy. bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures grew mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Our report illustrates that idiopathic, or congenital, TEF can be associated with esophageal dysmotility, adulthood bronchiectasis, and atypical mycobacterial superinfection.
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ranking = 0.0093157673851886
keywords = avium
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5/29. mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in a patient with hiv, germany.

    mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne disease in ruminants, has been incriminated as the cause of crohn disease in humans. We report the first case of human infection with MAP in a patient with hiv; infection was confirmed by obtaining isolates from several different specimen types.
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ranking = 0.046578836925943
keywords = avium
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6/29. Dual skin testing for latent tuberculosis infection: a decision analysis.

    BACKGROUND: Recent data indicate that 10- to 14-mm mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) reactions are often due to prior infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria. Therefore, use of a 10-mm cutpoint to define latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) results in false-positive diagnoses and unnecessary treatment for LTBI. A second skin test, Mycobacterium avium sensitin (MAS), has been shown to accurately identify false-positive PPD results. OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs and accuracy of a single skin-test strategy (SST) with PPD alone with a dual skin-test strategy (DST) where 10- to 14-mm PPD results are also tested with MAS. methods: A decision analytic model was developed to evaluate the two strategies. The model accounted for the costs of skin testing, the costs of LTBI treatment, the costs of undetected LTBI, and the sensitivity and specificity of each strategy. RESULTS: We estimated that DST saved US dollars 3 per subject tested compared to SST. Savings were due to a reduction in false-positive PPD results and consequent reduction in unnecessary treatment for LTBI of >60%. The DST strategy was associated with a minimal increase in undetected LTBI (6% vs 7%). Results were stable for a broad range of parameter values. CONCLUSIONS: DST is a promising approach to improving the specificity of LTBI testing when a 10-mm PPD cutpoint is used and would reduce costs and unnecessary drug treatment.
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ranking = 0.0093157673851886
keywords = avium
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7/29. Impairment of IL-12-dependent STAT4 nuclear translocation in a patient with recurrent Mycobacterium avium infection.

    We examined the immunological abnormality in a patient with recurrent Mycobacterium avium infection. T cells from the patient showed decreased ability both to produce IFN-gamma and to proliferate in response to IL-12. Despite decreased expression of IL-12R beta1 and beta2 chains in the patient's PHA-activated T cells, there was no difference in IL-12-induced tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT4 in PHA-activated T cells between the patient and healthy subjects, suggesting that IL-12R signals are transmitted to STAT4 in the patient's PHA-activated T cells. Using EMSA, confocal laser microscopy, and Western blotting, we demonstrated that the nuclear translocation of STAT4 in response to IL-12 is reduced in PHA-activated T cells from the patient when compared with those from healthy subjects. Leptomycin B was used to examine whether nuclear export of STAT4 is increased in the patient's T cells. However, leptomycin B treatment did not reverse impaired IL-12-induced nuclear accumulation of STAT4. Although the exact mechanism responsible for the impaired STAT4 nuclear translocation in this patient remains unclear, the absence of mutation in the IL-12Rbeta1, IL-12Rbeta2, STAT4, and STAT4-binding sequence of the IFN-gamma gene and preservation of STAT4 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation suggest the existence of a defective STAT4 nuclear translocation. This defect is likely responsible for the impaired STAT4 nuclear translocation in IL-12-stimulated T cells, leading to impairment of both IFN-gamma production and cell proliferation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with atypical mycobacterial infection associated with impairment of STAT4 nuclear translocation.
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ranking = 0.046578836925943
keywords = avium
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8/29. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma arising in a patient with bronchiectasis and chronic Mycobacterium avium infection.

    We describe a 67-year-old woman with bronchiectasis and mycobacterium avium complex infection who underwent wedge resection of her pulmonary infiltrates because they were progressing despite antibiotic therapy. In addition to the expected granulomatous changes, she was found to have a B-cell lymphoma of bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). Despite normal bone marrow morphology, marrow involvement was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Her lymphoma remains suppressed with antimycobacterial therapy 6 months after resection of bulk disease.
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ranking = 0.046578836925943
keywords = avium
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9/29. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a 20-year-old female with partial recessive IFNgammaR1 deficiency.

    We report the case of a 20-year-old female with disseminated Mycobacterium avium disease involving bones, lungs and brain. She was completely healthy up until the present illness and had been vaccinated with BCG in infancy without complications. Mycobacteriosis progressed in spite of treatment with antituberculous drugs and was controlled only after addition of interferon-gamma subcutaneously. A homozygous hypomorphic I87T mutation was found in the gene encoding the ligand-binding chain of the IFN-gamma receptor (IFNgammaR1). This mutation is the only known recessive hypomorphic lesion in IFNGR1 and had been reported before in only 1 child with curable BCG infection and his sibling with primary tuberculosis. Our report illustrates the clinical heterogeneity of patients sharing exactly the same form of partial recessive IFNgammaR1 deficiency. A diagnosis of partial recessive IFNgammaR1 deficiency should be contemplated in adults with unexplained environmental mycobacterial diseases.
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ranking = 0.046578836925943
keywords = avium
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10/29. Bilateral parotid gland tuberculosis.

    Tuberculosis is caused by a mycobacterium and is one of the most serious diseases in the world. Pulmonary involvement is the most common form of this condition. Primary tuberculosis of the parotid gland is rare. We report such a case in a 34-year-old man who presented with a painless preauricular mass on each side of his head. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, pathological findings and treatment are described.
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ranking = 0.24301317446111
keywords = mycobacterium
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