Cases reported "Tumor Virus Infections"

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1/20. Primary ocular Epstein-Barr virus-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with AIDS: a clinicopathologic report.

    OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual case of chronic multifocal chorioretinitis with vitritis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that was resistant to antiviral and antitoxoplasmic medication and required a retinal biopsy for definitive diagnosis. methods: Vitreous biopsy, pars plana vitrectomy, and retinal biopsy were performed. The vitreous biopsy material was sent for bacterial, fungal, and viral culture, and the vitreous cassette was sent for cytology. The retinal biopsy material was divided and sent for polymerase chain reaction testing for toxoplasmosis and virology and pathologic tissue analysis. RESULTS: Vitreous cytology showed a mixed population of lymphocytes and histiocytes, but all other microbiologic and virologic studies were negative. Tissue analysis revealed an infiltrate of atypical mononuclear cells extending from the inner limiting membrane through the outer plexiform layer characteristic of a B cell, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the central nervous system (NHL-CNS). in situ hybridization for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was positive. An extensive systemic evaluation did not show evidence of extraocular tumor. CONCLUSION: Although rare, primary ocular NHL-CNS can be seen in patients with AIDS, and its clinical presentation often closely resembles other disorders. To our knowledge, this case represents the first ocular NHL in which EBV is shown to be associated.
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2/20. bk virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: The two widely spread human polyomaviruses, bk virus (BKV) and jc virus (JCV) establish latency in the urinary tract, and can be reactivated in AIDS. JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To report on an AIDS patient with progressive renal and neurological symptoms involving the retina. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Venhalsan, Soder Hospital, Stockholm, sweden. methods: The brain, eye tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by nested PCR for polyoma-virus dna. Macroscopical and microscopical examination were performed of the kidney and brain post mortem. Immunohistochemical stainings for the two BKV proteins, the VP1 and the agnoprotein, were performed on autopsy material and virus infected tissue culture cells. RESULTS: BKV could be demonstrated in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, eye tissues, kidneys and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: During 6 years, approximately 400 cerebrospinal fluid samples from immunosuppressed individuals with neurological symptoms have been investigated by PCR for the presence of polyomaviruses. BKV dna has, so far, only been found in the case reported here. Although reports of BKV infections in the nervous system are rare, there is now evidence for its occurrence in immunocompromised patients and the diagnosis should be considered in such patients with neurological symptoms and signs of renal disease. The diagnosis is simple to verify and is important to establish.
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3/20. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in Castleman's disease: proposed pathomechanism of vascular proliferation in the affected lymph node.

    Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology characterized by enlarged hyperplastic lymph nodes with marked vascular proliferation. To evaluate the possible involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the pathogenesis of Castleman's disease, we studied VEGF expression in sera and lymph nodes from four patients with either the plasma-cell type or mixed type of Castleman's disease. Clinically, one patient had the multicentric type and the others the localized type. The VEGF levels of the sera and the supernatants of the cultured lymph nodes were higher than those of normal controls. VEGF was strongly expressed in plasma cells in the interfollicular region of the lymph nodes, but rarely in normal lymph nodes. The disregulated IL-6 gene expression is considered to be a primary event that could be related to the etiology of this disease. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma virus/human herpes virus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) has been reported to be associated with a subset of the multicentric type of Castleman's disease, and a viral homologue of IL-6 (vIL-6) encoded by KSHV/HHV-8 has been shown to induce VEGF expression. Human IL-6 produced in the affected lymph nodes of Castleman's disease may induce paracrine VEGF-production by plasma cells and vascular proliferation in the lymph node. The confirmation of the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of Castleman's disease may provide a therapeutic strategy.
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4/20. Successful treatment of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis-related multicystic lung disease with cidofovir: case report and review of the literature.

    Cidofovir, a nucleoside analog antiviral agent, has been used with moderate success in the treatment of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP) by direct intralesional injection. We report the first case where IV cidofovir was used successfully to treat a rare but lethal multicystic lung disease complicating JLP. A 35-year-old woman with a history of JLP requiring multiple laser ablations of laryngeal papillomata each year presented with hemoptysis and was found on CT scan to have bilateral, multiple pulmonary nodules and cysts. The results of BAL fluid analysis demonstrated no evidence of malignancy, and cultures were negative for fungi and mycobacteria. Molecular dna typing of a biopsy specimen obtained from a laryngeal papilloma confirmed infection with human papilloma virus type 11. She received 12 months of treatment with IV cidofovir followed by 9 months of combined treatmentwith IV cidofovir and subcutaneous interferon-alpha-2A. This therapeutic regime resulted in a markedly decreased requirement for surgical removal of laryngeal papillomata, and CT scanning documented the regression of the lesions in the lung parenchyma that persisted after the discontinuation of therapy. The results of this case demonstrate that cidofovir may be used successfully to treat JLP-related lung disease and suggest that further studies are warranted.
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5/20. Squamous carcinoma of the head and neck in organ transplant recipients: possible role of oncogenic viruses.

    A consistently increased incidence of malignancies in renal transplant recipients has been attributed to the effect of chronic immunosuppression required to prevent transplant rejection. Tumors arising in such patients offer a unique opportunity to study the interactions of the immune system and tumor development. A series of three cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma arising in patients after renal, cardiac, or bone marrow transplantation are reported. Patient ages at tumor diagnosis were 18, 29, and 53 years, respectively. time from transplant to diagnosis of tumor ranged from 7 months to 12 years. Only the youngest patient lacked a history of exposure to the traditional pre-disposing factors of tobacco and alcohol use. Histopathologic examination in all three tumors showed features of koilocytosis with hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis suggestive of papillomavirus infection. Squamous carcinoma cells from one of these patients have been successfully established in cell culture. immune system impairments secondary to the use of antirejection drugs could allow the expression of oncogenic viruses. A recent report of human papillomavirus (HPV) dna in a primary and metastatic perianal squamous cell carcinoma from a renal transplant recipient, as well as the reported presence of HPV in benign and malignant neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract suggests that HPV infection could play a role in the development of squamous carcinomas in transplant recipients. Further studies of HPV infection in cultured cell lines derived from head and neck tumors occurring in immunosuppressed patients are needed to define this relationship.
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6/20. Oral hairy leukoplakia in an hiv-negative renal transplant recipient.

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (HL) has been seen exclusively in those infected with hiv or at risk for AIDS. This case report describes an example of HL seen in a renal transplant recipient who was negative for hiv on serology and culture. The diagnosis of HL was confirmed using in situ hybridization for EBV dna.
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7/20. Epstein-Barr virus-positive recipient type B-cells survive in a "complete chimera" after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation.

    Latency of Epstein-Barr virus infection may be generated by surviving immortalized B cells or by continuous re-infection. EBV-positive B-cell tumors have been found following bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and were of donor type in the few cases investigated. We established a B-cell line from the bone marrow of a patient in complete remission following allogeneic BMT for aplastic anemia 18 months post-grafting. Differences in sex and isoenzymes allowed an exact determination of chimerism in our case. While the patient showed persistent complete chimerism of all cell lineages, cells grown in culture were of recipient type. They expressed B-cell markers, showed a monoclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin genes and carried EBV-associated antigens. As direct preparations of cells from the patient did not contain detectable recipient-type cells, it appeared likely that small numbers of EBV-transformed B cells of the recipient survived for long periods in this patient. For the development of secondary B-cell neoplasms in vivo, additional patho-physiological steps like severe graft versus host disease or T-cell suppression are obviously required because the patient was still free of lymphoma 3 years post-grafting.
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8/20. Fatal Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with persistent Epstein-Barr virus in four brothers.

    Three brothers from one family died of hodgkin disease and a fourth brother from a diffuse malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This patient exhibited a constant deficiency of serum immunoglobulins and elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr viral antigens. Epstein-Barr virus dna sequences were detected in dna isolated from lymph node biopsies from two of the patients. Initially, no abnormalities in the numbers of B and T cells could be detected. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients did not react in the mixed lymphocyte culture assay. We suggest that an immune deficiency to Epstein-Barr virus may favor the proliferation of malignant lymphocytes after Epstein-Barr viral infection. Monoclonal lymphoid B cell lines established spontaneously in vitro from a lymph node biopsy specimen and from peripheral blood specimens from two of the patients. The cells harbor Epstein-Barr viral dna sequences in multiple genome equivalents and express Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen. The cells contain a tenfold increased level of c-fgr-related rna transcripts compared with peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy adults. No obvious amplifications or translocations of the c-myc, c-abl, or c-fgr gene could be detected.
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9/20. Regulation of human T-cell proliferation: T-cell growth factor and isolation of a new class of type-C retroviruses from human T-cells.

    The discovery, characterization, and purification of human T-cell growth factor (TCGF) has led to the establishment of continuously growing T-lymphoblast cell lines from normal people and from patients with certain T-cell neoplasias. In contrast to normal T-cells, neoplastic mature T-cells respond directly to TCGF, requiring no prior lectin or antigen in vitro activation. The transformed T-cell lines have phenotypic characteristics consistent with the neoplastic cells of their disease of origin. A novel retrovirus, human T-cell lymphoma-leukemia virus (HTLV), has been isolated from the fresh and cultured cells of two of these patients. Subsequent characterization of this virus has shown that it is not significantly related to any known animal retrovirus, is not an endogenous (genetically transmitted) virus of man, and so far has been associated only with fresh or cultured T-cells from patients with T-cell neoplasia. These results suggest that HTLV infected some mature T-cells of some people and that it might be involved in some neoplasias involving these cells.
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10/20. Tubulo-interstitial nephritis associated with polyomavirus (BK type) infection.

    We studied viral injury to the kidney in a six-year-old boy with hyperimmunoglobulin M immunodeficiency who presented with irreversible acute renal failure and eventually died after five months of dialysis. Renal biopsy at the time of his presentation revealed a predominantly tubulo-interstitial process with numerous viral inclusions that were identified as polyomavirus. urine cultures showed a massive viruria with BK-type, polyomavirus. The kidney disease was end stage, with persistence of bk virus identified by morphologic techniques and by culture. dna hybridization analysis showed virus in low concentration in the lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs. The marked viruria, the high concentration of bk virus, and the extensive distribution of viral antigen throughout the kidney all suggest that infection with bk virus was the basis of the severe renal parenchymal injury.
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