Cases reported "Unconsciousness"

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1/125. Severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery presenting as loss of consciousness due to the presence of a primitive hypoglossal artery: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Symptoms of ischemic attacks in the internal carotid system usually involve focal cerebral dysfunction, i.e., hemiparesis or aphasia. However, an ischemic attack in the vertebrobasilar artery system usually presents with combined symptoms. The variety of manifestations included in the vertebrobasilar profile makes the potential pattern of symptoms considerably more variable and complex than that in the carotid system. Manifestations can include syncope and also vertigo. METHOD AND RESULTS: A 42-year-old woman experienced frequent attacks of faintness with vertigo. angiography demonstrated severe stenosis of the left internal carotid artery with a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery just distal to the stenosis. The right internal carotid artery was normal and cross circulation through the anterior communicating artery was not well developed. Both vertebral arteries were hypoplastic. The patient underwent carotid endarterectomy and, thereafter the episodes of syncope completely disappeared. CONCLUSION: It was supposed that global ischemia including the brain stem occurred because of stenosis of the left internal carotid artery attributable to the presence of a primitive hypoglossal artery.
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2/125. Positive skin tests in late reactions to radiographic contrast media.

    In the last few years delayed reactions several hours after the injection of radiographic and contrast materials (PRC) have been described with increasing frequency. The authors report two observations on patients with delayed reactions in whom intradermoreactions (IDR) and patch tests to a series of ionic and non ionic PRC were studied. After angiography by the venous route in patient n degree 1 a biphasic reaction with an immediate reaction (dyspnea, loss of consciousness) and delayed macro-papular rash appeared, whilst patient n degree 2 developed a generalised sensation of heat, persistent pain at the site of injection immediately and a generalised macro-papular reaction after 24 hours. The skin tests revealed positive delayed reactions of 24 hours and 48 hours by IDR and patch tests to only some PRC with common chains in their structures. The positive skin tests are in favour of immunological reactions and may help in diagnosis of allergy in the patients.
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3/125. Gas embolism during hysteroscopy.

    PURPOSE: Gas embolism during hysteroscopy is rare but sometimes fatal. A fatal case of gas embolism during diagnostic hysteroscopy using carbon dioxide (CO2) is presented. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 68 yr old woman was admitted for treatment of myoma and cancer of the uterus. hysteroscopy using CO2 was performed without monitoring or anesthesia on the ward. At the end of the examination, just after the hysteroscope was removed, she developed tonic convulsions, lost consciousness, and her pulse was impalpable. Cardiac massage was started, anesthesiologists were called and the trachea was intubated. She was transferred to the intensive care unit with continuous cardiac massage. Cardiac resuscitation was successful. A central venous line was inserted into the right ventricle under echocardiography in an attempt to aspirate gas with the patient in the Trendelenberg position, but the aspiration failed. Positive end expiratory pressure and heparin for emboli, midazolam for brain protection, and catecholamines were administered. Fifteen hours after resuscitation, the pupils were enlarged and she died 25 hr after resuscitation. CONCLUSION: Gas embolism is a rare complication of hysteroscopy. The procedure should be performed with monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and end-tidal CO2 concentration.
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4/125. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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5/125. Lower limb exsanguination and embolism.

    We report a case of fatal pulmonary embolism during lower limb exsanguination in orthopaedic surgery. A 76-year-old woman underwent an open fixation of an external femoral condyle fracture one day after injury. Subarachnoidal anaesthesia was performed and Esmarch compression bandages were applied in preparation for tourniquet ischaemia. At this time, the patient lost consciousness, became apneic and collapsed. resuscitation procedures were instituted and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed pulmonary embolism. In spite of haemodynamic support and thrombolytic therapy, the patient died. Postmortem examination revealed multiple thromboemboli of recent origin in the right heart cavities, in the pulmonary arteries and in the popliteal and tibial veins of the injured leg. Preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic options of this catastrophic event and indications of pulmonary embolectomy are discussed.
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keywords = consciousness
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6/125. Recurrent psychogenic coma following tracheal stenosis repair.

    Medication, intracranial hemorrhage, infarction, infection, hypoxia, organ failure, and nutritional deficiency may cause unconsciousness following successful emergence from anesthesia. A 39-year-old woman with a history of tracheal stenosis, depression, and anxiety had complete unconsciousness on 3 separate occasions following surgical repair of her tracheal stenosis. In each case, the patient's endotracheal tube had been removed; she was alert and oriented to person, time, and place; and she was admitted to the hospital for observation. Within a few hours after the tube was removed, the patient became abruptly unconscious for periods of 36, 18, and 30 hours. Each time, the results of cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic, and neurologic examinations and radiological studies were normal. We hypothesize that the patient's apparent comas were the result of an underlying conversion disorder precipitated by unresolved psychological conflict surrounding a long history of abuse in which she was repeatedly smothered by a pillow.
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keywords = consciousness
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7/125. Delayed transient loss of consciousness in acute carbon monoxide intoxication.

    In acute carbon monoxide intoxication the presence of altered consciousness, ranging from transient loss of consciousness to coma, represents a poor prognostic factor and modifies the approach to therapy. Transient loss of consciousness is, as a rule, contemporaneous to the exposure, generally occurring at the scene of the intoxication. We report an unusual case of delayed transient loss of consciousness, occurring in the absence of any other evident aetiology, in one member of an orchestra composed of 110 members after a mass carbon monoxide poisoning.
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keywords = consciousness
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8/125. MRI demonstration of intracerebral cryptococcal granuloma.

    We report an intracerebral cryptococcal granuloma in a patient who presented with recent memory disturbance and deteriorating mental status followed by temporary loss of consciousness. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intracerebral cryptococcal granuloma examined by a combination of conventional MRI, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging and in which the surgical specimen was analysed histochemically.
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keywords = consciousness
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9/125. Simultaneous EEG and ECG recording during a Stokes-Adams attack.

    Simultaneous electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic recordings were obtained from a 77-year-old patient during a Stokes-Adams attack. The recordings showed a clear temporal relationship between symptoms, electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic changes during the Stokes-Adams attack. This case shows the usefulness of simultaneous EEG and ECG recordings in the investigation of patients with unexplained episodes of disturbed consciousness.
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10/125. Multiple oligodendroglioma: case report.

    An 18-year-old female patient was hospitalized with headache and disturbance of consciousness. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a tumor in the left parieto-occipital lobe. The tumor was totally removed, and postoperative radiation therapy was administered locally at 50 Gy. Ten months later, she experienced sudden onset of unconsciousness and headache. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI demonstrated multiple mass lesions in the whole brain. Following the systemic chemotherapy, removal of the largest tumor was performed. Histological examination proved all excised tumors to be oligodendroglioma without evidence of malignant change.
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