Cases reported "Unconsciousness"

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1/12. Convulsive syncope following placement of sphenoidal electrodes.

    Two cases of convulsive syncope following the insertion of sphenoidal electrodes are reported. The episodes occurred shortly after an uneventful insertion of the needle. Both patients exhibited behavioral arrest with loss of muscle tone, followed by flexor posturing, jerking of the extremities, then followed by what appeared to be a panic attack. Episodes were clinically distinct from the patients' typical spells and were initially interpreted as representing psychogenic events. EEGs during the episodes showed diffuse slowing followed by generalized suppression of rhythms. Simultaneous EKG showed bradycardia followed by brief asystole and then resumption of normal heart rhythms in both cases. Vagally mediated cardioinhibitory reactions induced by fear, pain and possibly stimulation of branches of the trigeminal nerve in the face represent an uncommon but potentially serious complication of placement of sphenoidal electrodes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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2/12. Sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with the occipital bone defect.

    Occipital nerve block is usually considered to be a very simple and safe regional anaesthetic technique. We describe a case of sudden unconsciousness during a lesser occipital nerve block in a patient with an occipital bone defect. A 63-year-old man complained of headache, which was localized to the right occipital region. A right lesser occipital nerve block with a local anaesthetic was performed for treatment. During the lesser occipital nerve block, the patient suddenly became disturbed and lost consciousness. Two hours after the incident, the patient was fully awake without neurological sequelae. He had previously undergone a microvascular decompression for right trigeminal neuralgia. The patient had a bone defect following craniotomy. We believed that the loss of consciousness during lesser nerve block may be due to a subarachnoid injection. Occipital nerve block is relatively contraindicated in the presence of a bone defect.
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ranking = 2517.0386096418
keywords = nerve block, block, nerve
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3/12. Acute rhabdomyolysis and brachial plexopathy following alcohol ingestion.

    An unusual case of brachial plexopathy following alcohol-induced rhabdomyolysis is presented. The patient's rhabdomyolysis developed during sleep after an acute alcohol binge and there was no history of muscle trauma. It is thought that the brachial plexopathy developed due to direct compression of the plexus from swollen muscles of the shoulder girdle. The lack of similar reported cases despite the common clinical scenario of prolonged unconsciousness following excess alcohol intake suggests that other factors may be important in the development of muscle and nerve damage in susceptible individuals.
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keywords = nerve
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4/12. Bitemporal head crush injuries: clinical and radiological features of a distinctive type of head injury.

    OBJECT: Most craniocerebral injuries are caused by mechanisms of acceleration and/or deceleration. Traumatic injuries following progressive compression to the head are certainly unusual. The authors reviewed clinical and radiological features in a series of patients who had sustained a special type of cranial crush injury produced by the bilateral application of rather static forces to the temporal region. Their aim was to define the characteristic clinical features in this group of patients and to assess the mechanisms involved in the production of the cranial injuries and those of the associated cerebral and endocrine lesions found in this peculiar type of head injury. methods: Clinical records of 11 patients were analyzed with regard to the state of consciousness, cranial nerve involvement, findings on neuroimaging studies, endocrine symptoms, and outcome. Furthermore, an experimental model of bitemporal crush injury was developed by compressing a dried skull with a carpenter's vice. Seven of the 11 patients were 16 years old or younger. All patients presented with a characteristic clinical picture consisting of no loss of consciousness (six patients), epistaxis (nine patients), otorrhagia (11 patients), peripheral paralysis of the sixth and/or seventh cranial nerves (10 patients), hearing loss (five patients), skull base fractures (11 patients), pneumocephalus (11 patients), and diabetes insipidus (seven patients). Ten patients survived the injury and most recovered neurological function. CONCLUSIONS: Static forces applied to the head in a transverse axis produce fractures in the skull base that cross the midline structures without producing significant cerebral damage. Stretching of cranial nerves at the skull base explains the nearly universal finding of paralysis of these structures, whereas an increase in the vertical diameter of the skull accounts for the occurrence of diabetes insipidus in the presence of an intact function of the anterior pituitary lobe. The association of clinical, endocrine, and neuroimaging findings encountered in this peculiar type of head injury supports the idea that this subset of injured patients has a distinctive clinical condition, namely the syndrome of bitemporal crush injury to the head.
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keywords = nerve
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5/12. Cyanotic breath-holding spell: a life-threatening complication after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma.

    Cyanotic breath-holding spell is a benign and self-limiting disease of young children but occasionally associated with sudden, unexpected death. The authors report a rare case in a 2-year-old girl with a severe form that started after radical resection of a cervicomedullary ganglioglioma. She was admitted to our hospital because of delayed and unstable gait. Since magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervicomedullary tumor, she underwent a radical resection and histology showed the tumor to be a ganglioglioma. Postoperatively, the function of the lower cranial nerves and cerebellum deteriorated and hemiparesis on the left became apparent, but she returned to the preoperative state in a few months. In addition, mild sleep apnea (Ondine curse) and severe cyanotic breath-holding spells occurred. The former responded to medication but the latter failed and continued several times per day with a rapid onset and progression of hypoxemia, loss of consciousness, sweating and opisthotonos. Five months after the operation, the patient returned home with a portable oxygen saturation monitor equipped with an alarm. This case indicates that cyanotic breath-holding spell, as well as sleep apnea, is critical during the early postoperative period. This is the first report observing that such spells may occur as a complication of radical resection of a cervicomedullary tumor.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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6/12. Possible inadvertent subdural block following attempted stellate ganglion blockade.

    A case is reported of suspected inadvertent subdural block following attempted stellate ganglion blockade for relief of cervicobrachial pain in a patient suffering from reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Possible complications due to neuraxial spread of local anaesthetics while performing a cervicothoracic ganglion blockade are considered.
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ranking = 44.827753416832
keywords = block
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7/12. Division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve for idiopathic laryngeal spasm.

    A rare case of idiopathic laryngeal spasm presented itself as sleep apnea in a middle-aged man. A tracheostomy followed by the division of the recurrent laryngeal nerve relieved all of the symptoms.
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ranking = 5
keywords = nerve
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8/12. Concurrent loss of consciousness and sino-atrial block during Gz stress.

    Current USAF fighter aircraft easily exceed human physiologic limits with their rapid onset of head-to-foot acceleration forces ( Gz). Sudden in-flight incapacitation caused by these increased Gz forces could be disastrous with loss of materiel and human life. The physiologic mechanisms responsible for loss of consciousness (LOC) secondary to high Gz must be fully understood so that maximum protection against it can be provided. An interesting case of an episode of LOC with concurrent sino-atrial block occurring during a relaxed rapid onset (1 G/s) centrifuge run is presented. The patient was undergoing flight medical evaluation for an episode of syncope, etiology unknown. An unusual characteristic of the patient was his high level of endurance training. The possibility of an excessive increase in vagal tone, developed by endurance training, is discussed as a probable etiology for this patient's prolonged time of incapacitation evidenced after Gz-induced loss of consciousness.
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ranking = 20.376251553106
keywords = block
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9/12. A case of being scared to death.

    A 21-year-old student had generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by the mental image of human pain. One ictal event occurred while he was listening to a description of suffering, as read from Fox's Book of Martyrs. While again listening to the offending passage during EEG and ECG monitoring, he had 25 s of asystole terminating in electrocerebral silence and a generalized tonic, tonic-clonic seizure. A 24-hour ambulatory monitor recorded episodes of progressive sinus bradycardia concomitant with PR-interval prolongation and Wenckebach atrioventricular block. Sinoatrial conduction times and sinus node recovery times were normal on atrial pacing. Since implantation of a permanent pacemaker, he has been asymptomatic. This patient demonstrates the advantages of reproducing the circumstances associated with an unexplained loss of consciousness while monitoring the EEG and ECG.
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ranking = 4.0752503106211
keywords = block
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10/12. Simultaneous recording of pupillary hippus and EEG. Report of a case.

    Pupillary hippus was observed and recorded in a man of 44 years, who had epileptic seizures, chronic alcoholism with liver disease and Primidon intoxication, during a period of unconsciousness of 24 h. During this time the simultaneous records of the EEG and pupillogram over a long period of time revealed that the basic EEG rhythm and hippus had the same frequency. Both recordings were temporarily in phase, time-locked, and could be blocked by painful and acoustic stimuli. The etiology and interpretation of hippus are discussed.
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ranking = 4.0752503106211
keywords = block
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