Cases reported "Uniparental Disomy"

Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/71. An unbalanced translocation 46,XX, der(18)t(18;21)(q12.2;q11.2)mat,-21 associated with maternal isodisomy 18pter-->18q12.2.

    We report a patient with a 46,XX, der(18)t(18;21)(q12.2;q11.2)mat,-21 karyotype, in whom the rarely seen adjacent-2 segregation (according to the predicted pachytene diagram model) as well as two cross-overs, resulted in maternal isodisomy 18pter-->18q12.2. ( info)

2/71. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA): novel mutations of the TRKA (NTRK1) gene, a putative uniparental disomy, and a linkage of the mutant TRKA and PKLR genes in a family with CIPA and pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by recurrent episodic fever, anhidrosis (inability to sweat), absence of reaction to noxious stimuli, self-mutilating behavior, and mental retardation. The human TRKA gene (NTRK1), located on chromosome 1q21-q22 encodes the receptor tyrosine kinase for nerve growth factor. We reported that TRKA is the gene responsible for CIPA and we developed a comprehensive strategy to screen for TRKA mutations and polymorphisms, as based on the gene's structure and organization. Here we report eight novel mutations detected as either a homozygous or heterozygous state in nine CIPA families from five countries. Mendelian inheritance of the mutations was confirmed in seven families for which samples from either parent were available. However, non-mendelian inheritance seems likely for the family when only samples from the mother and siblings, (but not from the father) were available. A paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 is likely to be the cause of reduction to homozygosity of the TRKA gene mutation in this family. Interestingly, a Hispanic patient from the USA has two autosomal genetic disorders, CIPA and pyruvate kinase deficiency, whose genetic loci are both mapped to a closely linked chromosomal region. A splice mutation and a missense mutation were detected in the TRKA and PKLR genes from the homozygous proband, respectively. Thus, concomitant occurrence of two disorders is ascribed to a combination of two separate mutant genes, not a contiguous gene syndrome. This finding suggests a mechanism responsible for two autosomal genetic disorders in one patient. All these data further support findings that TRKA defects can cause CIPA in various ethnic groups. This will aid in diagnosis and genetic counseling of this painless but severe genetic disorder. ( info)

3/71. Mosaic trisomy 15 and hemihypertrophy.

    We report a case of mosaic trisomy 15 with mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and hemihypertrophy, but no manifestations of Prader-Willi or Angelman syndromes. Mosaic trisomy 15 (11%) was discovered at the amniocentesis. uniparental disomy for chromosome 15 was excluded by molecular analysis. Post-natal blood karyotype and examination were normal. Mosaic was confirmed on skin fibroblasts, placenta and cord. Evolution was marked by progressive right hemi-hypertrophy, and developmental delay. Our case is the first patient reported with hemihypertrophy associated with mosaic trisomy 15. The relevant literature is reviewed. ( info)

4/71. Post-zygotic origin of complete maternal chromosome 7 isodisomy and consequent loss of placental PEG1/MEST expression.

    Maternal UPD of chromosome 7 is associated with pre- and postnatal growth retardation (IUGR, PNGR) and silver-russell syndrome (SRS [MIM 180860]). We report a case of IUGR in a newborn with SRS stigmata. Using combined haplotyping and cytogenetic-FISH studies we characterized the lymphocytes, umbilical cord and four placental cotyledons. The results are consistent with complete maternal isodisomy 7 and trisomy 7 mosaicism of post-zygotic origin. The trisomic cell line was prevalent in trophoblast cells from two placental cotyledons. trisomy 7 of post-zygotic origin is a frequent finding, but maternal isodisomy 7, due to trisomic rescue has never been reported. PEG1/MEST expression was evaluated on placenta cDNA and a specific transcript was revealed only in the cotyledons with a high percentage of trisomic cells and the presence of the paternal chromosome 7 contribution, but not in the placental biopsies with maternal isodisomy 7. The histological features of the four placental fragments revealed that isodisomy 7 correlates with a pattern of cotyledonary hyper-ramification due to an increase of the branching angiogenesis, which could be the result of a defect of angiogenesis caused by the absence of PEG1 product. The severe hypo-ramification of the two cotyledons, showing trisomy 7 mosaicism, may be due to the triplicate dosage of genes on chromosome 7. The delayed fetal growth could be the phenotypic effect of the imbalance between imprinted and non-imprinted genes on chromosome 7 in the fetus or the result of abnormal placental function during pregnancy. ( info)

5/71. Retinal dystrophy due to paternal isodisomy for chromosome 1 or chromosome 2, with homoallelism for mutations in RPE65 or MERTK, respectively.

    uniparental disomy (UPD) is a rare condition in which a diploid offspring carries a chromosomal pair from a single parent. We now report the first two cases of UPD resulting in retinal degeneration. We identified an apparently homozygous loss-of-function mutation of RPE65 (1p31) in one retinal dystrophy patient and an apparently homozygous loss-of-function mutation of MERTK (2q14.1) in a second retinal dystrophy patient. In both families, the gene defect was present in the patient's heterozygous father but not in the patient's mother. Analysis of haplotypes in each nuclear kindred, by use of dna polymorphisms distributed along both chromosomal arms, indicated the absence of the maternal allele for all informative markers tested on chromosome 1 in the first patient and on chromosome 2 in the second patient. Our results suggest that retinal degeneration in these individuals is due to apparently complete paternal isodisomy involving reduction to homoallelism for RPE65 or MERTK loss-of-function alleles. Our findings provide evidence for the first time, in the case of chromosome 2, and confirm previous observations, in the case of chromosome 1, that there are no paternally imprinted genes on chromosomes 1 and 2 that have a major effect on phenotype. ( info)

6/71. Identification of a small supernumerary marker chromosome, r(2)(p10q11.2), and the problem of determining prognosis.

    The identification of small supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) and the elucidation of their clinical significance remain two of the problems in classical human cytogenetics. We observed a small supernumerary ring in amniotic fluid cell cultures and identified its origin as r(2)(p10q11.2) and its extent by means of fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). uniparental disomy (UPD) was excluded by microsatellite analysis using polymorphic markers localised in the same region. On the basis of normal ultrasonographic checks, the patient decided to continue the pregnancy. A normal female was delivered at term and subsequent neonatal follow-ups confirmed the normal phenotype and development. In the present case, genetic counselling was not helpful because of the absence of reference cases. Detailed characterisation made it possible to correlate the normal baby phenotype with the trisomic 2p10-2q11.2 genomic region. Further molecular cytogenetic investigations of SMCs classified by dna content and pregnancy outcome data should improve genetic counselling and risk evaluation. ( info)

7/71. Maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 2: detection through 'atypical' maternal AFP/hCG levels, with an update on a previous case.

    We report a case of maternal uniparental disomy 2, detected through routine screening of placental karyotypes following the finding of 'atypical' AFP/hCG levels in the second trimester, with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) but otherwise normal outcome at term. Although the child remained small, subsequent early physical and mental development has also been normal. Additionally, we report long-term follow-up of an earlier case, again with relatively normal physical and mental development. The significance of atypical AFP/hCG results and the predictive value of prenatal testing for UPD2 in trisomy 2 confined placental mosaicism (CPM) cases are discussed. ( info)

8/71. Maternal UPD 20 in an infant from a pregnancy with mosaic trisomy 20.

    Maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 20 was found in a 35-month-old girl, the product of a pregnancy complicated by a prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 20. Phenotypic abnormalities included pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, minor dysmorphic features and psychomotor developmental delay. Chromosomal analysis on cord blood revealed only a normal 46,XX karyotype. Microsatellite analysis of 27 chromosome 20 loci confirmed maternal UPD for all 11 informative markers. Maternal heterodisomy was detected in two and maternal isodisomy in three loci. In the remaining six loci, a non-informative maternal UPD pattern was displayed, as mother and proband are homozygous for the same allele. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of maternal disomy 20 with normal karyotype ascertained by a mosaic trisomy 20 pregnancy. ( info)

9/71. Two cases of mosaic RhD blood-group phenotypes and paternal isodisomy for chromosome 1.

    We encountered a 22-year-old man (case 1) and a 23-year-old woman (case 2), both unrelated and healthy. They were mosaic for the Rh blood group phenotype: one erythrocyte population was D-positive and the other was D-negative. Flow cytometric analysis of density profile of RhD antigen in their erythrocytes, and cytogenetic analysis including in situ hybridization using an RHD/RHCE-containing PAC clone, excluded a deletion of the RHD/RHCE gene complex, but suggested the presence of cells with uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 (UPD1). Microsatellite marker analysis was performed in both probands and their family members. In case 1, the analysis with markers spanning the chromosome 1 revealed both maternal and paternal alleles in his peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (EBL), and buccal mucosal cells. However, only paternal alleles were detected in all of 50 individual pieces of his hair or hair-roots and all of five monoclonal cell lines cloned from his established EBL. There was no direct evidence of heterozygous, biparental alleles in these two tissues. The presence of maternal isodisomy 1 was not absolutely ruled out in other tissues examined in case 1. Similar results were obtained in case 2, showing biparental, disomic patterns in her PBL and in 15 of 20 pieces of her hair roots, and showing monoallelic patterns in the remaining five pieces of hair roots. Analysis with markers for other autosomes confirmed their biparental inheritance. These findings indicated that both cases had at least two cell populations, one population having paternal UPD1 (isodisomy 1), and another heterozygous, biparental disomy 1. We emphasize that isodisomy for chromosome 1 is not infrequent and may cause unusual RhD phenotype, as seen in cases we described. ( info)

10/71. Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome: further prenatal characterization of the condition.

    We describe three unrelated cases of Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS). Two of them were diagnosed postnatally while the third was detected during pregnancy that resulted in elective termination. Amniotic karyotypes were normal in all. PCR amplification of polymorphic loci mapping to 11p15.5 region documented partial trisomy of 11p15.5 due to paternal translocation in one, and segmental and mosaic segmental unipaternal disomy (UPD) in the second and third cases, respectively. Based on findings documented in these cases and the literature, we tabulated the anomalies that might be detected prenatally by ultrasound and that may suggest the syndrome. Constant findings included fetal overgrowth, polyhydramios, enlarged placenta, and specifically a distended abdomen. As most described signs developed after 22 weeks of gestation, a careful follow-up should be carried on until late stages of pregnancy. An amniotic karyotype might not detect subtle chromosomal rearrangements. We therefore recommend utilizing PCR of polymorphic loci on 11p15.5, in addition to conventional cytogenetic analysis of the fetus and both parents to detect possible maternal deletions or inversions, paternal duplications, and UPD that may account for the largest subset of sporadic WBS reaching 25% of cases. An early diagnosis of WBS is important for counseling the parents concerning potential risk for developing embryonic tumors, selection of the mode of delivery due to potential adrenal cysts that might bleed during labor, and prevention of neonatal hypoglycemia. ( info)
| Next ->

Leave a message about 'Uniparental Disomy'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.