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1/10. Symmetrical upper limb peromelia and lower limb phocomelia associated with a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation: 46,XX,t(2; 12)(p25.1;q24.1).

    We report a female fetus of 20 weeks gestation with severe symmetrical deformity affecting all four limbs. These deformities were unusual in that there was upper limb peromelia and lower limb phocomelia. No additional major malformations were identified on postmortem examination. In particular there was no evidence of splenogonadal fusion or micrognathia and hypoglossia. The limb malformations in this case are associated with a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation 46,XX,t(2;12)(p25.1;q24.1). The cytogenetic features of Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome were not detected. Unfortunately, the fibroblast line died and no FISH or dna analysis could be carried out. In spite of this, the case is presented as it may be useful to other researchers in the selection of candidate genes for mendelian forms of peromelia and phocomelia. ( info)

2/10. Antenatal diagnosis and obstetric management of cystic hygroma occurring in twin pregnancies. A case report.

    The lymphatic system has an early development in the embryo. Usually, its development is complete by the 40th postconceptional day. If this connection fails to develop, lymphatic stasis and dilatation of the lymphatic channels may occur, causing a number of pathologies such as: lymphangiomas, lymphangiectasis and cystic hygromas. prenatal diagnosis can be made during the first trimester of pregnancy by ultrasonographic examination. A case of a twin pregnancy associated with cystic hygroma and bilateral hypoplasia of lower and upper limbs of both foetuses without chromosomal abnormalities is reported. ( info)

3/10. A dominantly inherited malformation syndrome with short stature, upper limb anomaly, minor craniofacial anomalies, and absence of TBX5 mutations: report of a Thai family.

    We report on a Thai family with dominantly inherited malformation syndrome with upper limb anomalies, short stature, quadricuspid aortic valve, and minor craniofacial anomalies. The affected individuals comprised a mildly affected mother, a moderately affected daughter, and a most severely affected son. The daughter and son had short stature. The craniofacial abnormalities comprised frontal bossing, hypoplastic nasal bones, depressed nasal bridge, and broad nasal alae. The upper limb defects varies among the patients, ranging from radial ray defects in the mother through radial and ulnar ray defects with unilateral humeral hypoplasia in the daughter to radial ray defects with severe oligodactyly and bilateral humeral hypoplasia in the son. All patients in this family had hypoplasia of the shoulder girdle and resembled what is observed in many families with Holt-Oram syndrome. Moreover, the son showed quadricuspid aortic valve with mild aortic regurgitation. However, the present family did not show any mutation of the TBX5 gene, a disease-causing gene of Holt-Oram syndrome. The present family deserves further investigation on other genes that play a role in the development of the upper limbs, particularly of radial rays. ( info)

4/10. Congenital lumbar hernia in association with carpus equina varus.

    A rare case of congenital lumbar hernia associated with carpus equina varus is described in a week old baby. The treatment is described with limited review of the literature. ( info)

5/10. Upper limb abnormalities as an isolated ultrasonographic finding in early detection of trisomy 18. A case report.

    trisomy 18 is the second most common multisystem malformation syndrome. We present here a case of a fetus with trisomy 18, in which upper limb reduction was detected prenatally, as an isolated defect, at 17 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was terminated by vaginal administration of misoprostol, and postmortem examination confirmed the ultrasound findings, including bilateral upper limb reduction with radial aplasia, absent first metacarpal and thumb and ventrally hyperflexed hands. This case demonstrates the need for thorough ultrasound evaluation of the fetal hands, as early as possible, because upper limb deformities can be the only abnormality of trisomy 18. ( info)

6/10. Duodenal atresia with a deletion of midgut associated with left lung, kidney, and upper limb absences and right upper limb malformation.

    Duodenal atresia with midgut deletion without abdominal wall defects is extremely rare. The authors report a newborn boy with this disease associated with left pulmonary, kidney, and upper limb absences and a contralateral upper limb malformation. At autopsy, agenesis of the arteries to such organs was confirmed. A fetal vascular disruption is presumed to be the main cause of these anomalies. ( info)

7/10. Proposal of new category for congenital unilateral upper limb muscular hypertrophy.

    According to congenital anomalies of the hand and forearm classifications, the common characteristic of overgrowth problems is the skeletal overgrowth of part or all of the hand. Congenital unilateral muscular hypertrophy of the upper extremity has been classified under the overgrowth (gigantism) problems as whole-limb hemihypertrophy. The common characteristic of overgrowth problems is the skeletal overgrowth of part or all of the hand, which is not prominent in these patients. Only 15 cases with this anomaly have been reported since 1962. These patients have abnormal muscles with hypertrophic appearance and changed tendon to muscle length ratio. This type of muscular hypertrophy shows an increase in the number of fibers in transverse section, as also seen in multiply innervated muscles like the sartorius and gracilis in humans. Although this phenomenon has a mosaic type distribution, there is no progression of the muscular hypertrophy during growth period. hand deformities are not due to a part of progression of the disease but result of imbalance of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles. The evolutionary changes of skeletal muscles should be investigated to explain this congenital phenomenon and might be classified in a different entity from the present categories. ( info)

8/10. Spondylo-mega-epiphyseal dysplasia with prominent upper limb mesomelia, punctate calcifications, and deafness.

    We report on a previously undescribed form of skeletal dysplasia with rhizomelic, acromelic, and prominent mesomelic shortening, distal ulnar epiphyseal and pubic punctate calcifications (stippling), mega-epiphyses, platyspondyly, anterior beaking of the vertebrae, and sensorineural hearing loss. We compare this case to the other reported forms of skeletal dysplasias, particularly the mesomelic, acromesomelic, and mega-epiphyseal disorders. ( info)

9/10. Lengthening of congenital forearm stumps.

    The Ilizarov device and distraction osteogenesis method became very useful in correction and elongation of forearm defects. Two cases of forearm elongation with congenital transverse defect are described. The construction of the device is provided. During follow-up examination, 2 and 7 years after the treatment, good clinical results were achieved in both patients with the use of upper limb prosthesis employing the patient's own elbow joint. Presented application of the Ilizarov method can significantly improve possibilities for the use of prosthesis in patients with congenital upper limb defects and result in better cosmetic and functional outcome. ( info)

10/10. A new syndrome with prenatally diagnosed thoracoschisis, hiatal hernia and extremities' agenesis: case report.

    Thoracoschisis is a very rare congenital anomaly and is usually associated with limb and abdominal wall defects forming part of limb-body wall complex. We here present a case of a 29-week-4-day pregnancy ended with intrauterine demise. Postmortem examination revealed hiatal hernia, thoracoschisis and protrusion of some part of liver from this defect, left forearm agenesis and right arm and right hand agenesis. The findings accompanying thoracoschisis in this presented case exclude any previously reported related syndrome and we believe that this is a new syndrome. ( info)
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