Cases reported "Uremia"

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1/378. Watermelon stomach--an unusual cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a uremic patient receiving estrogen-progesterone therapy: case report.

    A 50-year-old woman who had been on maintenance hemodialysis for 5 years developed severe anemia resistant to treatment with iron supplements and erythropoietin 4 months prior to hospital admission. Her stool occult blood test was positive, and an initial panendoscopy revealed evidence of possible antral gastritis. However, repeated administration of sucralfate, H2 blockers and a proton pump inhibitor was not effective in preventing further gastrointestinal tract blood loss and subsequent refractory anemia. She required multiple blood transfusions and hospital admissions during this period. There was no obvious coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. After her third admission, a second panendoscopy demonstrated the typical picture of watermelon stomach. A trial of hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone increased the hemoglobin level within a month without further evidence of active gastrointestinal bleeding. From our experience with this case, we found that the diagnosis of antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) with bleeding requires a high degree of clinical alertness and careful endoscopic examination. Estrogen and progesterone therapy may provide a good option for treating the disease in uremic patients without an obvious complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of maintenance hormone therapy in a female uremic patient to successfully treat watermelon gastric bleeding. ( info)

2/378. endometriosis: a clinically malignant disease.

    According to the literature this is the first patient with the primary diagnosis of an endometriosis (EMT) based on the cardinal symptom of an uremia in combination with a colorectal ileus. Operative removal of EMT was possible after hormonal suppression with Dienogest. ( info)

3/378. Radionuclide renography: a personal approach.

    Recent advances have increased the value of radionuclide renography in evaluating the patient with suspected disease of the genitourinary tract. The use of the consensus process to help standardize procedures and recommend interpretative criteria provides guidance for the nuclear medicine practitioner, serves as a basis to improve the standard of practice, and facilitates pooling of data from different centers. This review draws on the consensus criteria to present a personal approach to radionuclide renography with a particular emphasis on diuresis renography and the detection of renovascular hypertension. patients are encouraged to come well hydrated and void immediately prior to the study. Our standard radiopharmaceutical is 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). Routine quantitative indices include a MAG3 clearance, whole kidney and cortical (parenchymal) regions of interest, measurements of relative uptake, time to peak height (Tmax), 20 min/max count ratio, residual urine volume and a T(1/2) in patients undergoing diuresis renography. A 1-minute image of the injection site is obtained at the conclusion of the study to check for infiltration because infiltration can invalidate a plasma sample clearance and alter the renogram curve. A postvoid image of the kidneys and bladder is obtained to calculate residual urine volume and to better evaluate drainage from the collecting system. In patients undergoing diuresis renography, the T(1/2) is calculated using a region of interest around the activity in the dilated collecting system. A prolonged T(1/2), however, should never be the sole criterion for diagnosing the presence of obstruction; the T(1/2) must be interpreted in the context of the sequential images, total and individual kidney function, other quantitative indices and available diagnostic studies. The goal of ACE inhibitor renography is to detect renovascular hypertension, not renal artery stenosis. patients with a positive study have a high probability of cure or amelioration of the hypertension following revascularization. In patients with azotemia or in patients with a small, poorly functioning kidney, the test result is often indeterminate (intermediate probability) with an abnormal baseline study that does not change following ACE inhibition. In patients with normal renal function, the test is highly accurate. To avoid unrealistic expectations on the part of the referring physician, it is often helpful to explain the likely differences in test results in these two-patient populations prior to the study. ( info)

4/378. Brown tumor of the maxilla due to secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    The paper describes a patient with brown tumor of the maxilla caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism, and gives an account of pathophysiology and management. ( info)

5/378. Prominent medial hypertrophy of renal arterioles in an infant with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism.

    We describe an 11-month-old boy who presented clinically with hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Persistent hyperchloremic acidosis and mild azotemia were present. All abnormal laboratory values were corrected by the administration of fludrocortisone. Renal biopsy showed prominent medial hypertrophy of renal arterioles and interstitial fibrosis, which closely resemble those of the gene-targeted mice with disruption of the renin angiotensin system. This is the first case report raising the possibility that a defective renin angiotensin system in infancy may lead to tubulointerstitial damage with medial hypertrophy of intrarenal arterioles. ( info)

6/378. Renal lymphoma in an azotemic patient--usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging.

    An azotemic patient benefited from diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of his renal mass. This led to suspicion of lymphoma, and provided guidance for percutaneous biopsy. Chemotherapy was then initiated, and an unnecessary nephrectomy was avoided. After a year of follow-up, evolution was stable and renal function significantly improved. ( info)

7/378. hyperkalemia with cardiac arrhythmia. Induction by salt substitutes, spironolactone, and azotemia.

    In two patients, severe hyperkalemia and serious cardiac arrhythmia developed after excessive use of potassium-containing salt substitutes. Both had impaired ability to handle and excrete additional potassium load due to chronic congestive heart failure, azotemia, and administration of spironolactone. Prompt recognition of the arrhythmia and immediate restoration of the cardiac rate and rhythm by pacemaker support followed by intensive regimen to lower the serum potassium prevented a potentially fatal outcome. These cases emphasize the potential danger of salt substitutes when used by patients who are predisposed to retain potassium. ( info)

8/378. Henoch-Schonlein purpura in a chronic hemodialysis patient.

    We describe a patient on maintenance hemodialysis who developed purpura, abdominal pain with bloody stool, and gross hematuria. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with IgA deposits. This is the first report of Henoch-Schonlein purpura in a hemodialysis patient. ( info)

9/378. Severe gastrointestinal bleeding in a uremic patient treated with estrogen-progesterone therapy.

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a frequent complication in hemodialysis patients; angiodysplasia is a potential cause, with a higher incidence in uremic patients. We describe a case of severe anemia (Hemoglobin up to 3.5 g/dl) secondary to diffuse angiodysplastic lesions in a hemodialysis patient with mixed connective tissue disease. The case is characterised both by the severity of the clinical picture (extension and entity of angiodysplastic lesions, frequency of bleeding episodes) and by the patient's religious faith which made her reject blood transfusions. We underline the efficacy of estrogen-progesterone therapy in view of the modest results obtained with other therapeutic strategies on bleeding. ( info)

10/378. Prerenal azotemia in a diabetic patient with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and autonomic neuropathy.

    patients with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism show mild to moderate renal insufficiency, with a creatinine clearance of 20-75 ml/min, and asymptomatic hyperkalemia. A low degree of sodium wasting and mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis are also usually present. However, severe sodium wasting and volume depletion are not typically seen unless the patient is placed on severe sodium restriction or has some other cause of extrarenal sodium loss. In fact, acute renal failure has not been reported in such patients. We describe a diabetic patient with hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and autonomic neuropathy who developed recurrent episodes of acute renal failure due to prerenal azotemia during acute exacerbations of diarrhoea. In our case, despite significant hypovolemia, the renin-aldosterone axis was markedly suppressed, implying that sympathetic tone played a decisive role in renin regulation. ( info)
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