Cases reported "Ureteral Obstruction"

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1/255. Unilateral renal agenesis presenting as anuria.

    The most common cause of sudden and total cessation of urine output is obstructive uropathy, usually at the bladder outlet. Bilateral ureteral obstruction is a much less common cause of anuria. In additioh, unilateral obstruction in the presence of a solitary kidney must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Primary renal parenchymal disorders and pre-renal azotemia occasionally may be anuric but more commonly are oliguric. A case of unilateral renal agenesis presenting as anuria and obstruction of the solitary kidney is described.
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2/255. Management of ureteric obstruction in the solitary kidney by a segmental suspended ureteric prosthesis.

    Ureteric obstruction of a single kidney, secondary to an aorto-iliac bypass graft, was treated with a suspended segmentary ureteric prosthesis. No urinary stasis was observed during 1 year and the urodynamic implication are discussed.
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3/255. Renal trauma in occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction: CT findings.

    The aim of this study was to present CT findings of occult ureteropelvic junction obstruction in patients with renal trauma and to describe the clinical signs and singular CT features that are characteristically observed with trauma and are relevant to management of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed 82 helical CT studies in patients with renal trauma referred to our institution. We found 13 cases of occult preexisting renal pathology, six of which were occult ureteropelvic junction obstructions. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings of trauma according to the Federle classification, and CT findings of obstructed ureteropelvic junction are presented. We found three category-I lesions (one in horseshoe kidney), two of them treated with nephrostomy because of increased ureteropelvic junction obstruction due to pelvic clots; two category-II lesions (parenchymal and renal pelvis lacerations) that had presented only with microhematuria; and one category-IV lesion (pelvic laceration alone). Pelvic extension was demonstrated in all the cases with perirenal collections. The CT studies in all the cases with suspected ureteropelvic junction obstruction showed decreased parenchymal thickness and enhancement, and dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyx, with a normal ureter. Computed tomography can provide information to confidently diagnose underlying ureteropelvic junction obstruction in renal trauma, categorize the traumatic injury (at times clinically silent) and facilitate proper management according to the singularities observed, such us rupture of the renal pelvis alone (Federle category IV) and increasing ureteropelvic obstruction due to clots which can be decompressed by nephrostomy.
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4/255. Metal mesh stents for ureteral obstruction caused by hormone-resistant carcinoma of prostate.

    BACKGROUND: Long-segment ureteral obstruction by hormone-refractory carcinoma of the prostate is a difficult problem to manage. J-stents often obstruct by compression. Metal mesh stents have been used successfully in the management of extrinsic ureteral obstruction caused by malignant disease. In this paper, we review our results in three patients in terms of the defined objective of palliation. patients AND methods: All three patients presented with painful obstructed kidneys and renal failure from long (7-10-cm) distal ureteral strictures responding to nephrostomy drainage. Endoluminal metal mesh stents of 7 to 8-mm diameter of various lengths (depending on the size of the stricture) were implanted after antegrade balloon dilatation of the stricture by a standard technique. The case notes were reviewed for technical success, preservation of the renal units, complications, and the impact on the overall quality of life. RESULTS: All three stents were placed without any complication and showed patency on contrast study. In one patient, the stent obstructed after 5 months, necessitating placement of a nephrostomy tube. In the remaining two patients, the stents obstructed within 3 months. During these 3 months, both patients had multiple admissions for stent-related complications and other symptoms of their disease. overall quality of life was poor for these patients. CONCLUSION: Metal mesh ureteral stents give poor palliation in distal strictures caused by hormone-refractory carcinoma of the prostate. Permanent nephrostomy may be a more acceptable alternative in these patients with short life expectancies.
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5/255. radio-contrast enhancement of a urinary tract calculus.

    We report the case of a woman who presented with obstruction and urosepsis of her left kidney secondary to small cystine calculi. The calculi could not be seen on initial plain abdominal X-ray. However, following percutaneous nephrostogram the calculi became more radio-dense and visible on later x-rays. Experimental enhancement of calculi has been described before but not in man. We presume that the contrast medium was adsorbed by the calculus to increase the radio-density. Further investigation of this phenomenon could prove useful in the management of complex radiolucent calculi.
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6/255. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction associated with extrarenal pelvis: A potential cause of cystic abdominal mass anterior to a normal-appearing kidney in the newborn.

    An extrarenal pelvis is associated with the absence of central sinus echoes on sonography. However, central sinus echoes are normally inapparent in some newborns. Furthermore, true absence of a central sinus may cause calices to simulate normal renal pyramids so that the kidney appears normal in a fetus or newborn. This case illustrates the potential for an obstructed extrarenal pelvis in a fetus or newborn to distend so that it is mistaken on sonography for a cystic anterior abdominal mass unrelated to the kidney. However, the absence of central sinus echoes should suggest the diagnosis of an obstructed extrarenal pelvis if the adjacent cystic abdominal mass is positioned to obstruct an intrarenal pelvis.
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7/255. Early posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting with ureteric obstruction in en bloc kidneys.

    We describe a female patient who received double pediatric (en bloc) kidney transplants. She presented initially with fever of unknown origin 3 months after transplantation; 5 months after surgery, she presented with obstruction of one ureter followed by obstruction of the other. After 9 months she developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in both kidneys. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of this disorder occurring in en bloc kidneys and presenting with bilateral ureteric obstruction.
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8/255. Dismembered pyeloplasty followed by metachronous ureteropelvic junction obstruction in the contralateral kidney.

    hydronephrosis due to congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is commonly diagnosed by antenatal sonography. We report the case of an infant who developed new-onset hydronephrosis in the right kidney following uneventful left-sided pyeloplasty for a congenital UPJO. The furosemide minus 15-minute diuretic renogram (F-15 DR) was used to confirm obstruction in the affected renal unit when standard diuretic renography was equivocal. The indications for surgery or observation as well as the role of the F-15 DR are discussed.
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9/255. Intrarenal cystic mass with pelviureteral junction obstruction.

    An abdominal mass in the first year after birth most commonly originates from the kidney. Renal masses in this age group are often cystic and may be associated with other abnormalities. We describe an unusual benign unilateral cystic lesion and coexisting pelviureteral junction obstruction in a newborn male with an otherwise morphologically and functionally normal urinary tract. A near normal kidney resulted from subsequent resection of the cyst wall combined with pyeloplasty.
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10/255. Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction represented as renin-dependent hypertension.

    A 50-year-old woman developed renin-dependent hypertension immediately after accidental unilateral ureteral ligation during hysterectomy, and the hypertension lasted for 5 months. Surgical release of the obstruction was carried out 157 days after the ligation. Then, her blood pressure was normalized. However, the obstructed kidney showed intensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis and functional recovery was not obtained. This case suggests that the renin-angiotensin system may be upregulated in human kidney during unilateral ureteral obstruction for a long duration.
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