Cases reported "Ureteral Obstruction"

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1/42. Upper urinary tract obstruction: pressure/flow studies in children.

    34 upper urinary tract pressure/flow studies were carried out in 24 children. Obstruction was reliably diagnosed in 8 studies, and excluded in 21. This technique may provide information of clinical value in the patient with upper urinary tract dilatation.
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2/42. Right ovarian vein syndrome. A case with pre- and peroperative electromyographic registration of ureteral activity.

    Electrophysiological studies of ureteral function in a patient with right ovarian vein syndrome demonstrated intermittent antiperistalsis as reflected from pre-operative endoureteral activity recordings. The antiperistalsis was related to the patient intermittent right flank pain. Per-operative EMG and pressure measurements revealed that the antiperistalsis apparently arose from the area of obstruction and caused pressure waves of higher amplitude than those seen during normal anterograde peristaltic activity. After section of the vein, exclusively anterograde peristalsis was observed, and at 3 month follow-up, the patient was free of right side colics.
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3/42. Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction represented as renin-dependent hypertension.

    A 50-year-old woman developed renin-dependent hypertension immediately after accidental unilateral ureteral ligation during hysterectomy, and the hypertension lasted for 5 months. Surgical release of the obstruction was carried out 157 days after the ligation. Then, her blood pressure was normalized. However, the obstructed kidney showed intensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis and functional recovery was not obtained. This case suggests that the renin-angiotensin system may be upregulated in human kidney during unilateral ureteral obstruction for a long duration.
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4/42. Bladder outflow obstruction masquerading as pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction.

    We report a case of bladder outflow obstruction presenting with upper tract dilatation mistaken initially as pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction. The lower tract obstruction ought to be dealt with first before upper tract obstruction is assessed because the renal pelvic pressure is significantly affected by vesical filling and high bladder pressure.
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5/42. The egg-shell sign: a possible indicator of raised intrarenal pressure.

    prenatal diagnosis of pelvicalyceal dilatation has produced clinical material that we are continually reinterpreting with the help of improving ultrasound equipment. However, the ability to predict the outcome for any one patient with marked dilatation remains poor. We describe a new sign that may help identify those fetuses who have high intrarenal pressure and therefore justify more aggressive management, while obviating the need for intervention for those in whom it is not present. The egg-shell sign consists of a thin crescent of increased echogenicity over a distended calyx and, in this case, was documented to be associated with other features of raised intrarenal pressure.
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6/42. Ureteral pressure flow studies in difficult diagnostic problems.

    Before a ureteral operation is undertaken for dilated, non-refluxing ureters it is essential to determine whether obstruction is present, since an operation is unnecessary and can be hazardous if there is no obstruction or infection. Obstruction is most accurately diagnosed by perfusing the upper tract at a known flow rate and measuring the resulting pressure. This test was performed on 5 patients in whom there was doubt as to the presence of obstruction from the radiographic evidence. In 4 of the 5 patients low pressure was found, the obstruction was excluded and an operation was avoided. In the fifth patient the obstruction was confirmed and relieved. The pressure flow test is useful in the diagnosis or exclusion of obstruction in the upper urinary tract.
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7/42. Reversible hypertension in a young female: ureteric obstruction due to endometriosis.

    We present the case of a young female who, upon investigation for hypertension, was found to have a ureteric stricture secondary to endometriosis. After excision of the stricture and an end-to-end ureteric anastomosis the patient's blood pressure returned to normal. This case highlights the need to investigate fully hypertension in young people and to consider the possibility of endometriosis in any female who presents with obstructive uropathy.
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8/42. Prototype of a reflux-preventing ureteral stent and its clinical use.

    We have experimentally produced a ureteral stent which prevents vesicorenal reflux. This stent has a thin silicon sleeve at its distal end (intravesical portion). In a model experiment the sleeve demonstrated an excellent capability to prevent reflux. The sleeve allowed flow of fluid with minimal pressure rise. A patient with bilateral ureteral obstruction was managed with endoscopic insertion of a sleeved stent in the right ureter and a usual pigtail stent in left ureter. During cystography vesicorenal reflux was not observed on the right side while reflux occurred on the left side. Excretory urography forty days after stent placement demonstrated recovery of renal function and maintenance of drainage in both renal units. Thus, the drainage characteristic of this stent appears to be approximately the same as that of usual stent.
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9/42. Failure of laparoscopy to relieve ureteral obstruction secondary to endometriosis.

    OBJECTIVES: To present a case of hydronephrosis and hydroureter secondary to pelvic endometriosis and to discuss the pitfalls in laparoscopic management. CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old nulligravida woman had mild elevation of blood pressure for about 1 year without abdominal pain, dyspareunia, or dysmenorrhea. Renal ultrasound revealed left hydronephrosis and a 4-cm pelvic cyst. Intravenous pyelogram showed distal ureteral obstruction. An MRI with fat saturation disclosed a left ovarian endometrioma and a lesion in the uterosacral ligament causing periureteral compression. Laparoscopic findings included a dilated left ureter above the uterosacral ligament, left uterosacral ligament endometriosis with adhesions, and a 4-cm left ovarian endometrioma. Cystoureteroscopy showed external ureteral compression 2 cm above the ureteral orifice. A ureteral catheter was placed. The left endometrioma was enucleated and ureterolysis was performed. The latter procedure had to be discontinued because of bleeding from descending uterine vessels. The ureteral catheter was removed 2 months later and her blood pressure gradually returned to normal. However, after 1 year, she was found to have recurrent hydronephrosis and underwent segmental resection of the distal ureter and reconstruction by end-to-end reanastomosis. CONCLUSION: In women of reproductive age, hydronephrosis and hypertension may be the only symptoms of endometriosis. While laparoscopic treatment is useful in endometriosis, it may fail in the presence of chronic inflammation and severe fibrosis.
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10/42. Intermittent hydronephrosis as a cause of a false-negative pressure-flow study.

    A case is reported of a negative pressure-flow study in a patient with intermittent hydronephrosis. This is the first known report of a properly performed pressure-flow study failing to diagnose obstruction due to the intermittent nature of the obstruction itself. This case also supports the concept that the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) can be intrinsically normal in patients with intermittent hydronephrosis secondary to a crossing renal vessel. It also reaffirms the need to study these patients while they are symptomatic.
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