Cases reported "Urethral Diseases"

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1/44. Gracilis transposition in complicated perianal fistula and unhealed perineal wounds in Crohn's disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of transposition of gracilis muscle in the treatment of chronic recurrent fistulas and unhealed perineal wounds after proctectomy in patients with Crohn's disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Academic clinic, united states. SUBJECTS: 7 patients with Crohn's disease: 3 had unhealed perineal wounds and persistent sinuses; 2 had had several attempts to repair rectovaginal fistulas; 1 had a rectourethral fistula; and 1 a pouch vaginal fistula. INTERVENTION: Transposition of the gracilis muscle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Healing. RESULTS: Mean follow up was 18 months (range 3-30). All patients operated on for unhealed perineal wounds had healed completely within 3-6 months. The patients with a rectovaginal fistula and a rectourethral fistula had both healed by 1 month postoperatively. Two fistulas recurred, and the small pouch-vaginal fistula remained but was asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Transposition of the gracilis is a viable option for the treatment of persistent sinus and unhealed perineal wound after proctectomy for Crohn's disease. It could also be an option before proctectomy for patients with other types of Crohn's-related or complicated fistulas for whom other treatments have failed. A larger series will be required before a definite conclusion can be drawn.
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2/44. Transpubic repair of vesicourethrovaginal fistula.

    A patient with recurrent urinary vaginal fistula involving bladder, bladder neck, and urethra was treated by transpubic approach. This afforded excellent exposure for careful repair of the urologic defects. Difficulty with ambulation during the first few weeks postoperatively may be related to removal of larger segment of pubic bone than is usually reported.
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3/44. Transanal repair of rectourethral fistula after a radical retropubic prostatectomy: report of a case.

    Rectourethral fistula occurred in a 64-year-old man after a radical prostatectomy. Despite conservative treatment the fistula did not close spontaneously. Eleven months after the original prostatectomy, an operation was performed. We chose the Latzko technique with slight modifications as follows. The patient was placed in the prone jackknife position. The fistula was found at a site about 6.0 cm from the anal verge. An elliptical area of rectal mucosa was incised about 1.5 cm from the fistulous orifice and subsequently the rectal mucosa was denuded. The submucosa was dissected above the fistula about 2.0 cm from the edge of the incision. The fistula was then closed with one layer of side-by-side absorbable 2-0 polyglactin sutures. The dissected rectal mucosal flap was brought down over the fistula and sutured in one layer to the distal edge of the rectal muscularis propria through the mucosa with 3-0 polyglactin sutures. On postoperative day 21 a retrograde urethrogram was made and it showed no leakage of urine via the rectum. This procedure is a simple, effective, and minimally morbid technique for the repair of rectourethral fistula after a radical prostatectomy, although it is only useful for the treatment of low rectourethral fistulas.
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4/44. Paraurethral cyst: is conservative management always appropriate?

    Paraurethral cyst, arising from cystic dilatation of a paraurethral gland in a girl, is rarely reported in infancy. Although the lesion has a reported incidence of between 1 in 2000 and 1 in 7000 live female births, only 41 examples have been reported previously in the English literature. The management of this lesion is controversial. Surgical excision has been advocated, but spontaneous rupture has also been reported. The latter has prompted some authors to recommend non-operative treatment. We report a female infant whose paraurethral cyst failed to resolve despite a 6-month observation period. She eventually required surgery. The management of our case and the experience in the literature is discussed.
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5/44. Extremely rare complications in cerebrospinal fluid shunt operations.

    The cerebrospinal fluid shunt operation, from its first realization in 1908 by Kausch till our days, is still of a significant importance for the long-term treatment of the internal hydrocephalus. Well known are many complications connected with the use of the valve systems (malfunction, infectious, overdrainage, secondary craniosynostosis and etc.). For a period of 17 years (1984-2000) at the Clinic of Pediatric neurosurgery, Department of neurosurgery, Sofia Medical University, 414 cerebrospinal fluid shunt operations were performed on children. 216 were drained to the right atrium of the heart, 198 to the peritoneal cavity. They were followed up by catamnesis until the year 2001. The authors describe 2 extremely rare cases with post-shunt complication as a result of a malfunction of the valve system, owing to a migration of the distal catheter: 1) in the anus; 2) in the urethra. In the first case the distal catheter perforated the colon transversum and by the way of the intestines went out through the anus. In the second case the distal catheter protruded out of the body through the bladder and the urethra. Their clinical appearance, the diagnostic examinations and the operative treatment are shown.
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6/44. Painless urethral bleeding: an unusual presentation of Von Willebrand disease.

    Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common bleeding disorder, and usually presents with either easy bruising or mucus membrane bleeding. Many patients are also diagnosed as a result of abnormal pre-operative laboratory tests. In this report, we describe two patients presenting with painless, persistent urethral bleeding as their initial manifestation of vWD. The first patient began bleeding after a Foley catheter was placed during a hospital admission for status epilepticus. A urologic examination demonstrated a wound in the posterior urethra. Despite repeated attempts at controlling the bleeding with cautery, the bleeding persisted. The second patient presented with spontaneous urethral bleeding and a normal urologic examination. Due to persistent bleeding, both patients underwent a coagulation evaluation that demonstrated the presence of type 1 vWD. The first patient had resolution of his bleeding following 5 weeks of Alphanate, a von willebrand factor containing factor viii concentrate, and aminocaproic acid. The second patient initially responded to desmopressin, but subsequently required Humate-P to achieve complete resolution. These cases illustrate the importance of an evaluation for bleeding disorders in patients with persistent bleeding from any site.
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7/44. Urethral erosion of a tension-free vaginal tape.

    BACKGROUND: Urethral dilation has been recommended to treat voiding dysfunction that may occur after placement of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. We report on a case of urethral erosion by the tape secondary to repetitive urethral dilations after surgery. CASE: A urethral erosion by the tape was diagnosed by cystoscopy after three urethral dilations failed to resolve postoperative voiding dysfunction 8 weeks after the initial procedure. A partial tape revision with repair of the urethrotomy was performed, with resolution of the subject's voiding dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This report describes a potential complication of a recommended treatment for voiding dysfunction after placement of TVT.
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8/44. Congenital urethral fistula with normal anus: a report of two cases.

    Congenital rectourethral or anourethral fistulae without imperforate anus in males are rare, representing less than 1% of anorectal malformations. We report our experience with two males with "N type" urethral fistulae. One, a 5-year-old boy, presented with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and passage of urine per anus. Investigations included a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), which demonstrated a fistula from the urethra to the anus. On physical examination, a small perianal opening was noted just outside the anus, which drained a small amount of urine after voiding. The fistula was excised via a perineal approach. The second patient is a 5-year-old boy with a long history of recurrent UTI requiring multiple hospitalizations since the newborn period. Chronic renal failure developed as a complication of repeated urinary tract infections. Investigations showed a single hydronephrotic pelvic kidney and a small bladder. He underwent numerous diagnostic and reconstructive procedures including cystoscopy and augmentation cystoplasty. Recurrent infections continued and an N type anourethral fistula was eventually diagnosed. The fistula was located between the anal canal and the membranous urethra. An anterior perineal approach was also used. Both fistulae were easily located, and reconstructive surgery of the urethra was not required. Postoperative VCUGs in both patients were normal. They have been free of infection with normal urinary continence since resection of the fistula. Congenital N type anourethral fistulae are rare, but should be considered in cases of recurrent urinary tract infections. The diagnosis may be missed by endoscopic procedures, but VCUG should demonstrate the fistulous tract.
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9/44. Anterior urethral diverticulum in the female: diagnosis and surgical approach.

    BACKGROUND: Despite an incidence of 3-40% in different populations, a diagnosis of urethral diverticulum in female patients is often delayed or missed. CASE: A 49-year-old multiparous woman presented complaining of severe, refractory urinary urgency and frequency and urge incontinence, in addition to dysuria and pelvic pain for several years. The diagnosis of an anterior urethral diverticulum was made based on findings at magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical management was accomplished vaginally without significant urethral disruption. At 5 months postoperatively, the patient was markedly improved. CONCLUSION: Lower urinary tract pathology can create a diagnostic and surgical dilemma, which necessitates a thorough evaluation and careful management to achieve a satisfactory outcome.
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10/44. Endorectal pull-through with posterior sagittal approach to the repair of postoperative rectourethral and rectovaginal fistula.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Rectourethral (RUF) or rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is a troublesome complication after anorectal surgery because of dense adhesions around the fistula. The authors applied a new technique for the redo surgery. methods: Case 1 is Hirschsprung's disease in a 1-year-old boy who underwent modified Duhamel's procedure and had RUF. Case 2 is rectovestibular fistula in an 11-year-old girl who had anterior sagittal anorectoplasty complicated by RVF. Case 3 is multiple urogenital anomalies including rectovesical fistula in a 4-year-old boy in whom transvesical repair was unsuccessful. The colon was mobilized as far as possible at laparotomy. The rectum was opened via a posterior sagittal approach leaving 1 cm of the anal canal. Extended endorectal mucosectomy was performed to the dentate line, and the fistula was closed from inside of the rectum. The remaining mucosal cuff was everted out of the anus and the intact colon was pulled through the rectum and anastomosed to the cuff extraanally. RESULTS: The postoperative contrast enema showed no recurrent fistula, and defecation was not impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Endorectal pull-through of the intact colon can spare troublesome mobilization of the fistula and can prevent the recurrence of fistula. Rectal incision via a posterior sagittal approach provides a direct view of the fistula.
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