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1/38. Laparoscopic bladder auto-augmentation in an incomplete traumatic spinal cord injury.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the urodynamic and clinical outcome of a laparoscopic auto-augmentated bladder. methods: Laparoscopic bladder autoaugmentation in a 27-year-old woman with an incomplete spinal cord injury at T12 level with urge incontinence caused by a hyperreflexic bladder. RESULTS: Six months later the patient voids by Valsalva's manoeuvre every 3 h and remains dry day and night. The radio-urodynamic study, performed 2 months later, revealed an intact bladder with a diverticulum of anterior wall and a capacity of 510 ml with filling rate of 100 ml/min without evidence of leakage of infusion water. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic retropubic auto-augmentation allows a brief hospital stay and minor postoperative discomfort. Moreover the laparoscopic approach should not complicate or preclude subsequent enterocystoplasty if necessary.
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2/38. Self-controlled dorsal penile nerve stimulation to inhibit bladder hyperreflexia in incomplete spinal cord injury: a case report.

    Intermittent catheterization is not always successful in achieving continence in spinal cord injury (SCI) and often requires adjunctive methods. electric stimulation of sacral afferent nerves reduces hyperactivity of the bladder. This report describes application of self-controlled dorsal penile nerve stimulation for bladder hyperreflexia in incomplete SCI. The patient was a 33-year-old man with C6 incomplete quadriplegia who managed his bladder with intermittent self-catheterization and medication. Despite this, he continued to have reflex bladder contractions that he could feel but could not catheterize himself in time to prevent incontinence. We performed cystometry with dorsal penile nerve stimulation and analyzed data of home use of stimulation. During cystometry, the suppressive effect of electric stimulation on hyperreflexic contractions was reliable and reproducible. The patient could start stimulation on sensing bladder contraction, and the suppression of reflex contraction lasted several minutes after stopping brief stimulation. When using stimulation at home, the rate of leakage between catheterization decreased, and catheterized volume increased significantly.
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3/38. Experience with non-sterile intermittent self-catheterization.

    Although a patient subjected to intermittent self-catheterization must carry a catheter and catheterize himself under a non-sterile technique at regular intervals this method is considered the best one available for patients who lead an active social life. When family cooperation is available intermittent catheterization is a cleaner procedure, causes less complications and is easier to manage for a patient confined to bed than the indwelling catheter, cystostomy or other urinary diversion procedures. The technique is also useful for patients with spinal cord injuries, promoting the early return of bladder activity and a life free of the catheter. It is an ideal method for children with meningomyelocele, after the upper tract has been maintained carefully by an indwelling catheter or cystostomy until the child is able to catheterize himself. In these cases a small capacity bladder may be enlarged using the colon and urinary incontinence may be corrected by other operative procedures. We have treated 26 patients with this technique, including 1 with a 17-year followup. The upper urinary tract has not deteriorated in any case and the urine has remained sterile in 39 per cent of the cases.
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4/38. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in the gastric remnant following gastrocystoplasty: a case report and review of the literature.

    urinary bladder augmentation with segments of the stomach (gastrocystoplasty), small bowel, or large intestine (enterocystoplasty) improves capacity and compliance in patients with bladder dysfunction. Although malignant complications of enterocystoplasty have been reported, the risk of malignancy in the setting of gastrocystoplasty is not known. We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman who developed a transitional cell carcinoma associated with transitional cell metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric epithelium 14 years following gastrocystoplasty. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a malignant complication of this surgical procedure. We conclude that patients who have undergone gastrocystoplasty are at an increased risk for the development of malignancy in the neobladder and require close long-term follow-up, similar to patients who have undergone enterocystoplasty.
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5/38. Twenty-seven years of complication-free life with clean intermittent self-catheterization in a patient with spinal cord injury: A case report.

    Currently, clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) is the most prevalent method of bladder management in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) at discharge from rehabilitation centers. However, half of the patients discontinue using CISC and change to other methods of bladder management several months postdischarge despite the fact that it the best way to prevent urinary tract complications. Few studies, however, report the long-term consequences of CISC. In this case, we present a woman in her early fifties who had sustained thoracic SCI and had continued using CISC for 27 years without developing any complications. The possible reasons for her success were absence of incontinence because of underactive and normal capacity bladder; normal upper-extremity functions and absence of marked spasticity of lower extremities that facilitated CISC technique; and absence of sociovocational problems, enabling her to keep proper intervals between catheterizations each day. This case indicates that CISC is useful for long-term bladder management in patients with SCI, even for 25 years or more. Long-term outcomes of CISC and factors leading to success need to be delineated in future studies with larger samples.
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6/38. rupture of urachal diverticulum in radiation cystitis and neurogenic bladder dysfunction after radical hysterectomy.

    We experienced a rare case of the rupture of the urachal diverticulum in radiation cystitis and neurogenic bladder after radical hysterectomy. A 61-year-old woman presented with severe lower abdominal pain and urinary retention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that the urachal remnant contained a large volume of urine that leaked to subcutaneous tissue. We excised the urachal diverticulum and bladder together and created a continent urinary diversion using transverse colon. Nine months after the operation, the patient could manage clean intermittent self-catheterization 6 times a day through her umbilical stoma without any urinary complications.
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7/38. Extravasation of the contrast media during voiding cystourethrography in a long-term spinal cord injury patient.

    OBJECTIVE: To present complications and pitfalls in voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and introduce a guideline for performing VCUG in a long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) patient with neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) and contracted bladder. STUDY DESIGN: A case report. SETTING: Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, thailand. METHOD: We describe a chronic C(5) tetraplegic man with NBD and contracted bladder, who developed autonomic dysreflexia (AD), gross hematuria and extravasation of contrast median during VCUG. RESULT: A foley catheter was retained after VCUG. AD was resolved and urine cleared after a week of continuous bladder irrigation. CONCLUSION: VCUG should be performed with caution in a long-term SCI patient with NBD and contracted bladder. Forceful pushing of the contrast media by the hand-injection method caused abrupt distention of the contracted bladder, damaged bladder mucosa and aggrevated AD. We suggest a guideline as follows: report bladder capacity and AD, if present, in an X-ray requisition form; use the gravity-drip method, stop the drip and drain the contrast media if a sudden headache and rising of blood pressure (BP) develop; observe urine colour, and report if bleeding or AD occurs.
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8/38. Perforation and intravesical erosion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in a child with an augmentation cystoplasty.

    Bladder augmentation has evolved into a common method of management in children with a low capacity and/or poorly compliant bladder secondary to a neuropathic condition. We report on a 4-year-old girl with myelodysplasia who presented with sepsis and who had a perforation of the augmented bladder, which was surgically repaired. She returned for evaluation 1 month after she was discharged from the hospital when the distal component of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt was noted to protrude per urethram after clean catheterization. Distal shunt replacement with prolonged bladder drainage successfully resolved this perforation of the augmented bladder. The patient has had no further difficulties. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this case with reference to the current literature regarding complications of augmentation cystoplasty.
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9/38. Management of the uninhibited bladder by selective sacral neurectomy.

    The authors report the treatment of incontinence due to uninhibited bladder contractions by selective sacral neurectomy in nine patients, four without evidence of neurological disease. A detailed and objective analysis of bladder and urethral function, together with quantitation of clinical features, was made before and after operation. Seven patients were either cured or greatly improved. The overall increase in bladder capacity and reduction of uninhibited activity were statistically significant. The resting urethral sphincter pressure was unchanged, but the contractility of the voluntary external sphincter was slightly impaired. Criteria for such neurectomies are discussed.
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10/38. Long-term follow-up of percutaneous radiofrequency sacral rhizotomy.

    A series of 7 patients undergoing percutaneous radiofrequency sacral rhizotomy to change a hyperreflexic to an areflexic bladder was reported in 1978. A patient from this original series was seen for treatment nine years later with successful preservation of good vesical capacity enabling him to use Crede maneuver and intermittent catheterization to evacuate his urine. In addition, there has been no recurrence of symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia during that period.
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