Cases reported "Urinary Calculi"

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1/7. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy: a preventable complication after jejunoileal bypass.

    Enteric hyperoxaluria is a commonly seen adverse event after the jejunoileal bypass procedure. The increased concentration of urinary oxalate predisposes bypass patients to various renal complications such as nephrolithiasis and oxalate nephropathy. If not diagnosed and appropriately treated, these complications can lead to irreversible renal damage. We describe 3 patients in whom severe renal complications developed with irreversible compromise of renal function after a jejunoileal bypass. patients who undergo a jejunoileal bypass require lifelong follow-up with close monitoring of their renal function. Marked decline in renal function mandates prompt investigation and aggressive intervention, including reversal of the jejunoileal bypass if necessary. Chronic renal failure secondary to oxalate nephropathy is preventable and treatable but may require conversion of a jejunoileal bypass to a more current form of bypass.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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2/7. Familial primary hyperparathyroidism: study of the pedigree in three generations.

    The familial occurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism in which the proband is a 55-year-old man is reported. His 58-year-old sister and 40-year-old brother had undergone partial parathyroidectomy, and histological examination revealed hyperplasia in both cases. Their father and a daughter of the proband had a history of nephrolithiasis. The three siblings showed high levels of plasma parathyroid hormone (even the two postoperative cases). All of them had a history of nephrolithiasis and peptic ulcers. In the proband, image studies did not reveal any abnormality in the neck region. At present, the three cases do not exhibit any abnormalities in the pancreas or the pituitary by imaging studies and endocrine tests.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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3/7. Bilateral urinary calculi after treatment with a silicate-containing milk thickener.

    nephrocalcinosis and/or urinary calculi are rare in infants. furosemide treatment during the neonatal period, vitamin d intoxication, hereditary diseases such as hyperoxaluria or distal tubular acidosis are among the most common aetiologies. We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with an extra-hepatic biliary duct atresia treated by the Kasai procedure and a gastro-oesophageal reflux treated with a silicate containing milk thickener (Gelopectose, 5.5% colloidal silicate) since the neonatal period. He did not present any other endogenous risk factor for urinary stone formation (normal urinary calcium/creatinine ratio; normal urinary magnesium excretion). The nephrolithiasis was discovered as the boy presented painful episodes of macroscopic haematuria. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis and multiple bilateral calculi without infection or urinary obstruction. Infrared spectroscopy revealed silicate as the major component suggesting silicate absorption to be responsible for the described symptoms. After replacement of the silicate-containing agent by a silicate-free milk thickener, the lesions were completely reversible as confirmed by repeated renal ultrasound examinations over a 2-month period. CONCLUSION: Silicate-containing milk thickeners can be responsible for urinary calculi and/or nephrocalcinosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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4/7. Eighteen-year follow-up of a patient with partial hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency and a new mutation.

    hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency is an inherited disorder. Complete deficiency of HPRT activity is phenotypically expressed as the devastating lesch-nyhan syndrome. Partial HPRT deficiency usually causes hyperuricemia, precocious gout, and uric acid nephrolithiasis. We describe an 18-year follow-up of a 5-year old boy with partial HPRT deficiency and report a novel mutation in his HPRT gene. He presented with overproduction of uric acid and passage of uric acid renal stones, and without gout or neurological and behavioral abnormalities. Treatment with allopurinol, adequate hydration, urinary alkalization, and a low-purine diet was started. No subsequent nephrolithiasis has occurred. After 18-year of this therapy his physical and neuropsychological status were normal, merely his glomerular filtration rate (GFR, normal 97-137 mL min(-1)/1.73 m(2)) fell from normal to 65.1 mL min(-1). The most likely cause of initial renal impairment in our patient is uric and/or xanthine crystalluria. A missense and transition mutation 169A>G (57ATG>GTG, 57met>val) in exon 3 of the patient's HPRT gene was identified and the mother was the carrier of the mutation. As far as we are aware, the identified mutation has not previously been reported. We named the mutant HPRT Maribor.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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5/7. An unusual patient with hypercalciuria, recurrent nephrolithiasis, hypomagnesemia and G227R mutation of Paracellin-1. An unusual patient with hypercalciuria and hypomagnesemia unresponsive to thiazide diuretics.

    A 19-year-old female patient with hypercalciuria and recurrent nephrolithiasis/urinary tract infection unresponsive to thiazide type diuretics is presented. The patient first experienced nephrolithiasis at the age of 4 years. Afterwards, recurrent passages of stones and urinary tract infection occurred. On diagnostic evaluation at the age of 19 years, she also had hypocitraturia and hypomagnesemia. Her serum calcium concentrations were near the lower limit of normal (8.5-8.8 mg/dl; normal range: 8.5-10.5), her serum magnesium concentrations were 1.15-1.24 mg/dl (normal range: 1.4-2.5) and urinary calcium excretion was 900 mg/24 h. PTH concentrations were increased (110-156 pg/ml; normal range: 10-65). We tried to treat the patient with hydrochlorothiazide at a dose of 50 mg/day. During treatment with thiazide diuretics, PTH concentration remained high and the patient had recurrent urinary tract infections and passages of stones. serum magnesium concentration did not normalize even under the parenteral magnesium infusion. Her mother had a history of nephrolithiasis 20 years ago. Severe hypomagnesemia in association with hypercalciuria/urinary stones is reported as a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by impaired reabsorption of magnesium and calcium in the thick assending limp of Henle's loop. Recent studies showed that mutations in the CLDN16 gene encoding paracellin-1 cause the disorder. In exon 4, a homozygous nucleotide exchange (G679C) was identified for the patient. This results in a point mutation at position Glycine227, which is replaced by an arginine residue (G227R). The mother was heterozygous for this mutation. G227 is located in the fourth transmembrane domain and is highly conserved in the claudin gene family. This case indicates the pathogenetic role of paracellin-1 mutation in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis and further underlines the risk of stone formation in heterozygous mutation carriers.
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ranking = 7
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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6/7. Renal calculus disease.

    The incidence of renal calculus disease increases with age and can be found as chronic or acute problems in elderly patients. The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, but the incidence of infected stones increases in elderly, debilitated patients. Treatment of renal calculus disease has been revolutionized in the past decade through the use of percutaneous and extracorporeal techniques to eliminate standard open surgery. Medical therapy to control recurrent renal calculus disease has been effective in decreasing chronic nephrolithiasis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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7/7. Xanthine calculi presenting at 1 month of age.

    Xanthinuria is a rare cause of nephrolithiasis and is usually due to an inherited abnormality in purine metabolism. A 5-year 6-month-old boy was assessed for a history of recurrent episodes of renal colic. The child first presented with symptoms due to xanthine calculi at 1 month of age, the youngest presentation we were able to identify. Xanthine calculi, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nephrolithiasis and ureterovesical junction obstruction in children. Xanthine calculi should also be considered when symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infection are present but the urine culture is negative, and when an orange-brown sediment is noted in the urine or similar coloured stains are found in the nappy.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nephrolithiasis
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