Cases reported "Urinary Fistula"

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1/21. Nephrobronchial fistula secondary to xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

    We report a case of staghorn nephrolithiasis that evolved into xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with perinephric abscess, nephrobronchial fistula, and lung abscess. The patient was an intravenous drug abuser who tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus, without evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He presented with a 2-month history of untreated repeated episodes of left flank pain and hyperpyrexia. Treatment involved left nephrectomy, debridement of abscess, tube drainage, and intravenous antibiotics. The patient illustrates the need to consider untreated nephrolitiasis as a predisposing factor for pulmonary complications.
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keywords = pyelonephritis
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2/21. Nephroenteric fistula treated with fulguration of the fistulous tract.

    We report the management of a nephroenteric fistula with percutaneous fulguration in a patient with recurrent pyelonephritis and urolithiasis. A nephrostogram at 6 weeks and retrograde pyelogram at 18 weeks after fulguration showed no evidence of a recurrent fistula. We believe this to be the first reported case of a nephroenteric fistula treated successfully with fulguration.
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3/21. Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula--2 unusual case reports with review of literature.

    We report two unusual cases of spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistulas. They were discovered to be the cases of neglected calculous disease in a poorly functioning kidney and tuberculous pyelonephritis respectively. A timely nephrectomy cured their debilitating condition and prevented further morbidity. We have discussed the etio-pathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic approach towards the cases of nephrocutaneous fistula. The literature regarding nephrocutaneous fistula has been reviewed and discussed. A stepwise algorithm has been proposed to manage cases of nephrocutaneous fistulas.
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keywords = pyelonephritis
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4/21. Cutaneous xanthogranulomatous inflammation: a potential indicator of internal disease.

    Cutaneous xanthogranulomatous inflammation is usually regarded as a primary disease process. We describe two patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and nephro-cutaneous fistulae, one patient with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis and a chole-cutaneous fistula and one patient with xanthogranulomatous appendicitis and appendiceal-cutaneous fistula. After the first case, awareness that cutaneous xanthogranulomatous inflammation can be secondary to related internal disease played a vital diagnostic role in the subsequent cases.
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5/21. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with nephrocutanous fistula and coexisting renal replacement lipomatosis: the report of a rare case.

    Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of rare, usually unilateral, and severe atrophy and destruction of the renal parenchyma often caused by renal calculi. It may be associated with, sometimes, aging, atrophy, long-standing chronic inflammation and urinary infection, such as renal tuberculosis. We report magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) findings of our case, which has xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) and RRL additionally associated with nephrocutanous fistula.
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6/21. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with a renocolic fistula caused by a parapelvic cyst.

    Fistula formation between the upper urinary tract and bowel is an uncommon complication in urogenital diseases. We present a rare case of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with a renocolic fistula. This is the first case where a parapelvic cyst obstructs the caliceal outflow and leads to the formation of a renocolic fistula in renal inflammatory disease. It is difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with widespread involvement that is caused by non-calculous urinary tract obstruction.
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7/21. Ureterocolic fistula: a unique complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    A unique case of ureterocolic fistula at the site of stone fragment impaction after piezoelectric shock wave lithotripsy is described. Pathological examination of the nephroureterectomy specimen indicated xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with the process extending into the ureter and fistulous tract.
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8/21. Renoduodenal fistula in a patient with chronic nephrostomy drainage: a case report.

    We describe the occurrence of a renoduodenal fistula related to a nephrostomy tube in a patient with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and renal calculi. The patient was successfully treated by nephrectomy. Etiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects are discussed.
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keywords = pyelonephritis
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9/21. CT findings in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with coexistent renocolic fistula.

    A case of diffuse xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis of the kidney with an associated renocolic fistula is reported. Computed tomography demonstrated typical findings with an enlarged poorly functioning kidney with multiple near-water-density masses replacing the renal parenchyma surrounding a central staghorn calculus. A mottled gas collection within the renal parenchyma was secondary to a renocolic fistula rather than a pyogenic abscess.
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10/21. Fistula and sinus formation in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A clinicopathological review and report of four cases.

    Fistula or deep sinus formation as a complication of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XPN) has not been described previously in the British literature. We present the clinicopathological features of one case of a nephrodiaphragmatic sinus complicating XPN, and three cases of nephrocolic fistula, including the first recorded case of fistula in childhood XPN. The detailed clinical, radiological and pathological features of XPN and its complications are reviewed. Total nephrectomy, together with primary excision of sinuses or fistulae, is the treatment of choice.
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