Cases reported "Urinary Incontinence"

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1/27. An urodynamic study of emepronium bromide in bladder dysfunction.

    The effect of emepronium bromide in 13 patients, most of whom had uninhibited bladders, has been studied urodynamically. Under the influence of this drug, the detrusor pressure and the urinary flow was reduced, and abdominal straining during during micturition was commonly recorded. The bladder capacity increased considerably, but all subjects developed residual urine. The effect of emepronium bromide on the bladder capacity seemed to last for a longer period than the effect on the detrusor pressure.
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2/27. Psychosocial side effects of sildenafil therapy for erectile dysfunction.

    Sildenafil is an effective agent to restore erectile capacity in the medically ill. Two cases are presented in couples whose marital situation worsened after the husband refused to take sildenafil for erectile failure following radical prostatectomy. Treating organically based sexual dysfunctions with medication still requires understanding of the dysfunctions in a broader psychosocial context.
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3/27. Spinal angiolipoma: case report and review of literature.

    Spinal extradural angiolipomas are distinct, benign, and rare lesions composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. They account for 0.14% of all spinal axis tumors. The case described here was a 72-year-old patient presenting with a history of paraparesis, hypoesthesia under the T2 level, hyperreflexia, and urinary overflow incontinence that appeared within 7 days after the administration of a coronary vasodilator drug regimen. The spinal magnetic resonance scan showed a lipomatous mass with signal void lesions, suggesting a vascular component of the tumor. The patient improved rapidly after surgical resection of the epidural tumor and decompression of the cord. According to the present literature, the duration of neurological symptoms ranges from 1 to 180 months (mean 28 months). But this patient's neurological deterioration took place 4 days before hospitalization. We believe that this can be explained by the increased tumor blood volume caused by vasodilator drugs, which in turn exerted a pulsatile compressive effect on the cord.
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4/27. Self-controlled dorsal penile nerve stimulation to inhibit bladder hyperreflexia in incomplete spinal cord injury: a case report.

    Intermittent catheterization is not always successful in achieving continence in spinal cord injury (SCI) and often requires adjunctive methods. electric stimulation of sacral afferent nerves reduces hyperactivity of the bladder. This report describes application of self-controlled dorsal penile nerve stimulation for bladder hyperreflexia in incomplete SCI. The patient was a 33-year-old man with C6 incomplete quadriplegia who managed his bladder with intermittent self-catheterization and medication. Despite this, he continued to have reflex bladder contractions that he could feel but could not catheterize himself in time to prevent incontinence. We performed cystometry with dorsal penile nerve stimulation and analyzed data of home use of stimulation. During cystometry, the suppressive effect of electric stimulation on hyperreflexic contractions was reliable and reproducible. The patient could start stimulation on sensing bladder contraction, and the suppression of reflex contraction lasted several minutes after stopping brief stimulation. When using stimulation at home, the rate of leakage between catheterization decreased, and catheterized volume increased significantly.
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5/27. Retroperitoneal lipoma. Unusual presentation with detrusor instability.

    Retroperitoneal lipomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors. They are usually large and occur most frequently in the retroperitoneal, perineal and pelvic regions. Lipomas grow slowly surrounding the retroperitoneal and pelvic organs, with a displacement of bowel and vascular axis. A case of a 61-year-old male patient which referred urinary frequency, urgency and nocturia is presented. urodynamics evidenced a detrusor instability in a low capacity bladder. CT scan demonstrated a bladder dome compression due to a huge retroperitoneal mass extending from the right hepatic lobe to the hypogastric region and the right thigh. Surgical complete resection was performed: histology demonstrated a lipoma with areas of well differentiated myxoid degeneration. After surgery the irritative urinary symptoms disappeared. This is the first case described in literature of detrusor instability due to bladder compression by retroperitoneal lipoma.
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6/27. Experience with non-sterile intermittent self-catheterization.

    Although a patient subjected to intermittent self-catheterization must carry a catheter and catheterize himself under a non-sterile technique at regular intervals this method is considered the best one available for patients who lead an active social life. When family cooperation is available intermittent catheterization is a cleaner procedure, causes less complications and is easier to manage for a patient confined to bed than the indwelling catheter, cystostomy or other urinary diversion procedures. The technique is also useful for patients with spinal cord injuries, promoting the early return of bladder activity and a life free of the catheter. It is an ideal method for children with meningomyelocele, after the upper tract has been maintained carefully by an indwelling catheter or cystostomy until the child is able to catheterize himself. In these cases a small capacity bladder may be enlarged using the colon and urinary incontinence may be corrected by other operative procedures. We have treated 26 patients with this technique, including 1 with a 17-year followup. The upper urinary tract has not deteriorated in any case and the urine has remained sterile in 39 per cent of the cases.
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7/27. Electrical stimulation of pelvic floor musculature by percutaneous implantable electrodes: a case report.

    A forty-year-old man with reflex urinary incontinence due to spinal cord injury was treated with electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor musculature. In this case we employed percutaneous implantable electrodes and an external pulse regulator. After 4 weeks of stimulation incontinence was improved and urodynamically maximum cystometric capacity increased from 220 ml to 350 ml. Our method is easy and not invasive. This technique can be an alternative for the electrical stimulation for urinary incontinence.
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8/27. urinary incontinence strategies for frail elderly women.

    Among the majority of frail older women, urinary incontinence has not been adequately assessed or treated, with resultant negative impact on quality of life. An assessment and intervention model based on type of incontinence, evidence-based interventions, and the influence of patient preference and capacity to carry out interventions are described.
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9/27. Artificial urinary sphincters following radical prostatectomy.

    The prostate gland lies directly beneath the bladder in men. It is doughnut-shaped and fits around the urethra. The gland produces a milky fluid that contains nutrients (used by sperm) and several enzymes including phosphate specific antigen (PSA). Secretions from the gland enter the urethra via prostatic ducts and make up part of the volume of semen. They also contribute to sperm motility and viability. For unknown reasons, the prostate enlarges in the majority of men beyond middle age--a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Urinary symptoms often accompany the enlargement of the prostate.
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10/27. First paediatric experience of a new device for "non-endoscopic" periurethral injection in urinary incontinence.

    The results of endoscopic treatment for urinary incontinence (ETUI) depend on the condition of the urethral mucosa and on the length of the urethra. ETUI is quite difficult to perform in female patients, and, in general, in cases of scarred urethral mucosa. A new device (Zuidex, Q-Med, Uppsala, sweden) has recently been designed for the "non-endoscopic" treatment of urinary stress incontinence in women. Three paediatric cases are described hereunder. Three patients were treated using Zuidex: two patients (two girls aged 8 and 18) on intermittent catheterization for neurogenic bladder, and one 11-year-old girl, with epispadias, who had already undergone bladder neck reconstruction (Young-Deese). Zuidex is a special implacer for dextranomer implants. It consists of four syringes filled with dextranomer, one implacer, and four needles (25 gauges). Once the device is positioned, the four injections are performed. At the end of this procedure, four implants are symmetrically positioned at four points of the urethral wall, increasing the outlet resistance. In the follow-up phase (5-13 months), the increase in the continent period was 56, 50 and 36%; the increase in bladder capacity (leak volume point) was 40, 28 and 27% in the three patients.Although the new device for "non-endoscopic" treatment of urinary incontinence has been designed for women, the size of the implacer virtually allows its use in any paediatric patient who is above the age of six. Our early experience indicates that this new device could play an important role in the treatment of urinary incontinence in paediatric age.
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