Cases reported "Urinary Tract Infections"

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1/14. A rational approach to urinary tract infections in older patients.

    urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more commonly in the elderly than in younger adults. The frequency of concomitant chronic illness and decreased resistance in this age group confers increased rates of morbidity and mortality, and manifestations are often atypical. diagnosis requires careful interpretation of urine culture results and a determination of the infection as asymptomatic bacteriuria, uncomplicated UTI, or complicated UTI. This, in turn, guides therapeutic measures, including the use of oral antibiotics.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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2/14. Urinary tract infection due to a mucoid (M) form of salmonella. A "new" transformation from M form into T1 form.

    An eighty-year-old patient suffering from prostatic hypertrophy developed cystitis associated with fever, macrohematuria and significant bacteriuria. In urine cultures, growth of a mucoid (M) form of salmonella was seen which changed into a T1 form after having been stored at room temperature or passed through U tubes. While the M form did not agglutinate in salmonella O and H antisera, H antigens of the T1 form could be identified as l,v and 1.7. The isolate was therefore designated S.I M   T1:l,v:1.7. To date, no such M-T1 variation has been described. For diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes salmonella M forms should be transformed into the N form or a T form (as in our case), because it is possible to demonstrate O or T and H antigens in these forms. The method of transformation and the pathogenesis of urinary excretion of salmonellae are briefly described.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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3/14. Urinary-catheter-associated infections in the elderly.

    The indwelling urinary catheter is the leading cause of complicated urinary tract infections and Gram-negative bacteraemia in this age group. It accounts for about 40% of life-threatening septicaemia. There is a progressive increase in mortality independently associated with the duration of catheterization. Polymicrobial bacteriuria is common. urease-producing bacteria lead to encrusted and blocked catheters. The current challenges are to develop effective methods to sensitize healthcare workers to avoid the routine use of indwelling catheters, remove them when no longer needed, develop alternative methods for care of incontinence, employ non-invasive methods to measure urine output, and improve urine drainage systems. The research paradigm needs to focus on prevention of catheter-associated infections rather than on futile attempts to treat irreversible sepsis.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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4/14. Urinary tract infection caused by corynebacterium group D2: report of 82 cases and review.

    corynebacterium group D2 (CGD2) is a slow-growing, urea-splitting, multiantibiotic-resistant microorganism that is frequently isolated from urine samples and that, in certain circumstances, produces infection of the lower urinary tract (acute and chronic cystitis) and the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). This paper analyzes (by means of a retrospective and partially prospective clinical protocol) our experience with 82 patients with CGD2 bacteriuria. The infection was symptomatic in 62% of cases, and the clinical diagnoses included acute and chronic cystitis and pyelonephritis with or without bacteremia. Because CGD2 infection of the urinary tract may require specific antimicrobial treatment and because CGD2 is a fastidious microorganism, we recommend prolonged incubation of urine cultures (up to 48-72 hours), especially if the routine culture is negative, when patients are symptomatic, have alkaline urine, or have struvite crystals in the urine sediment.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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5/14. Electron microscopic study of an infected Foley catheter.

    A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study was made of material from the surface of a Foley catheter removed from an 87-year-old woman with antibiotic-resistant bacteriuria. A thick, adherent bacterial biofilm was found. The sessile adherent bacteria were surrounded by an extensive exopolysaccharide glycocalyx that appears to be fundamental in the pathogenesis of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and their resistance to systemic antibiotic therapy.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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6/14. Hemophilus influenzae as a cause of urinary tract infections in men.

    Hemophilus influenzae has rarely been reported to cause urinary tract infections, but media supportive of its growth are not routinely used for urine cultures. At two veterans Administration medical centers, H influenzae was isolated from the urine of eight men in the past four years. All had anatomic or functional genitourinary abnormalities, and half had had chronic pyelonephritis or recurrent urinary tract infections. Three patients had acute cystitis, two patients had pyelonephritis, two patients had prostatitis, and one patient had asymptomatic bacteriuria with pyuria. Cases were discovered by primary isolation on chocolate agar or sheep's blood agar, by "satelliting" around staphylococci, or by positive urine Gram's stains. urine Gram's stains disclosed organisms in all six nonprostatitis cases. Organisms were all nonserotypable, were of biotypes 2, 3, or 4, and were beta-lactamase negative. Hemophilus influenzae may be a more common uropathogen in adults than previously recognized.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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7/14. Unique aspects of urinary tract infection in the geriatric population.

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important infectious disease in the elderly. Its prevalence, etiology, clinical manifestations, and management differs significantly from UTI occurring in the general population. Catheter-related bacteriuria is a serious problem of elderly patients residing in nursing homes and extended care facilities.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacteriuria
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8/14. urinary tract infections with antibiotic resistant organisms in catheterized nursing home patients.

    Long-term use of indwelling urinary catheters in nursing home (NH) patients is a potential cause of significantly morbidity. We retrospectively studied 10 NH patients with chronic indwelling urinary catheters. Sixty-four percent of all 84 antibiotic courses prescribed were for bacteriuria alone without clinical infection. Seventy percent of 63 antibiotic courses were followed by bacteriuria with organisms resistant to the antibiotic administered. bacteria isolated from NH patients often displayed greater resistance to specific antibiotics than those isolated from hospitalized patients. Four of the 20 urinary tract infections were associated with bacteremia. Three episodes of bacteremia were with highly-resistant organisms and one was fatal. Use of urinary catheters and inappropriate use of antibiotics in NH patients results in urinary tract colonization and infection with resistant bacteria and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
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keywords = bacteriuria
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9/14. Three-day treatment of urinary tract infections.

    There is little rationale to support the currently accepted 10 to 14-day treatment period for urinary tract infection. To assess the cure rate in patients given 3 days compared to the standard 10-day period of antimicrobial therapy a prospective trial was designed to test the over-all effectiveness of each treatment. Sixty patients were randomized to either penicillin-G or trimethoprim-sulfameth-oxazole for either 3 or 10 days. urine and external vaginal cultures were done before therapy was instituted, at day 3 while on therapy and 7 days after the completion of treatment. The over-all cure rate in the short-term treatment group was 86 per cent and in the long-term treatment group it was 88 per cent. patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole had a much better response to clearance of the pathogenic bacteria from the external vagina but this did not correlate with clearance of the bladder bacteriuria. Bacterial sensitivities on the external vaginal cultures suggest that in some patients 10 days of therapy actually may aid in the development of bacterial resistance noted in subsequent bladder infections. Finally, a cost-benefit analysis revealed that the use of a 3-day regimen as standard treatment for urinary tract infections would result in a savings to our patients conservatively estimated at $62,000,000 yearly.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacteriuria
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10/14. Non-neurogenic bladder and chronic renal insufficiency in childhood.

    Functional voiding disorders and urinary tract infections are common in childhood, but are usually not accompanied by upper urinary tract deterioration. Nevertheless a small group of children remain at risk of developing chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Clinically these children present day and night wetting. The most important parameter, however, is urinary retention which is reflected by an abnormal voiding pattern in the uroflow curve. After ruling out patients with neurogenic or anatomical disorders, nine girls with psychogenic urine retention were observed for 5 years. Terminal renal insufficiency was seen in one, CRI in five patients and in three patients the kidney function could be maintained, but they all had severe scarring of at least one kidney. Furthermore, all revealed a dilation of the bladder and the upper urinary tract. Vesicoureteral reflux occurred in six and obstruction of the ureterovesical junction in three patients. Two girls underwent repeated reflux surgery resulting in a rapid deterioration of renal function. Three patients developed hypertension and one had a hypertensive crisis with microangiopathic anaemia and acute renal failure. Psychogenic disorders and problematic family settings were observed in all cases. Bladder training, transitory suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterisation, medication and psychotherapy can avoid severe kidney damage and achieve a stabilisation of renal function. It is important to bear this syndrome in mind when evaluating girls with asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary retention.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacteriuria
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