Cases reported "Urogenital Neoplasms"

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1/11. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and followup of pediatric pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PURPOSE: Previous radiological descriptions of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma emphasized ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT). Few reports are available on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing and following pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. We retrospectively compared MRI to CT for diagnosing and following children with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. MATERIALS AND methods: We treated 4 boys and 3 girls for pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. Initial and followup evaluations included pelvic CT and MRI at intervals determined by treatment and disease status. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts and imaging studies of these patients. The initial radiological report was evaluated and then 1 radiologist reviewed all studies. attention was directed toward identifying lesions revealed by CT or MRI but not by the other modality. RESULTS: MRI detected all lesions shown by CT. On the other hand, MRI detected residual disease in 1 case that was not demonstrated by CT. In 2 other patients MRI was superior to CT for delineating the local extent of disease, especially urethral involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with CT, MRI improves the detection of residual pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma. Tissue planes are well delineated, allowing more accurate assessment of tumor invasion into adjacent structures. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for following pediatric patients with pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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2/11. Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic tumor and myosarcoma of the urogenital tract.

    OBJECTIVE: Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic tumors (PMTs) of the urogenital tract are rare but distinctive lesions. Despite their benign behavior, they are frequently misinterpreted as leiomyosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas in preoperative biopsies and even in resected specimens because of their atypical spindle-cell features. Precise diagnosis of PMTs is important to avoid unnecessary radical therapy. We analyzed urogenital myoid tumors to clarify which of their characteristics are useful for the differential diagnosis. methods: We evaluated 7 urogenital myoid tumors consisting of 3 PMTs, 2 leiomyosarcomas, and 2 rhabdomyosarcomas. We studied the expression of various immunohistochemical muscle-cell markers including desmin, muscle-specific actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, high-molecular-weight caldesmon, and myogenin. RESULTS: desmin, muscle-specific actin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin were noted variably in all tumor types, whereas high-molecular-weight caldesmon was expressed only in leiomyosarcomas, and myogenin was expressed only in rhabdomyosarcomas. CONCLUSION: High-molecular-weight caldesmon and myogenin are useful for differentiating urogenital PMTs from myosarcomas.
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ranking = 0.3
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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3/11. Continent urinary reconstruction in rhabdomyosarcoma: a new approach.

    PURPOSE: The authors present here 5 cases of continent urinary diversion in rhabdomyosarcoma applying a recently described technique for the Mitrofanoff Principle devised by the authors. methods: Two previously irradiated rhabdomyosarcoma patients presenting with residual bladder disease and massive sensitive urinary urgency underwent a transverse colonic reservoir with catheterizable stoma. Two other patients presenting with a Bricker conduit underwent conversion into an ileal reservoir. One patient underwent reconstruction after a cystectomy. RESULTS: All patients were continent and able to perform continent intermittent catheterization. CONCLUSIONS: The technique proved to be feasible for this group of patients. The authors believe that because of its simplicity, it should be an option of continent urinary diversion when the Mitrofanoff Principle is considered.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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4/11. rhabdomyosarcoma in the pediatric age group.

    Forty-five consecutive cases of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma were studied as to age at onset, histological type, primary site, stage of disease when first seen, method of treatment, and survival. It appears that rhabdomyosarcoma is a relatively radiosensitive tumor which can be controlled locally with radiation alone or in combination with surgery to excise the bulk of the tumor mass. On the other hand, chemotherapy must necessarily play a major role in treatment since most cases are first seen in the late stages of the disease. Close cooperation among a wide range of specialists, such as the pediatrician, radiation therapist, pediatric oncologist, pathologist, and surgeon is essential to accomplish a maximum therapeutic effect in the unfortunate children who develop this relatively rare but aggressive tumor.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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5/11. Gangliorhabdomyosarcoma: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of three cases.

    A histopathological and immunoperoxidase study on three cases of genitourinary gangliorhabdomyosarcoma using a spectrum of conventional staining methods and antibodies against myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein is presented. The results of the study have shown that differentiated myoblasts, ganglion cells and schwann cells reacted positively with the particular antisera, but the majority of undifferentiated cells were negative. From the immunopathology results it was not possible to determine whether the undifferentiated cells were precursors of neural cells or myoblasts; the histological appearance resembled that of mesenchymal cells commonly seen in rhabdomyosarcomas. Theories concerning the origin of these tumours from neural crest ectomesenchyme or from neural crest and somitic mesenchyme are considered. Further study is needed to establish their histogenesis.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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6/11. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis following radiotherapy.

    Two children with rhabdomyosarcoma who developed slipped capital femoral epiphyses following pelvic irradiation are described. Previous case reports are summarised, and the relevant orthopedic implications of the disorder discussed.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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7/11. rhabdomyosarcoma in Nigerian children.

    A review of eight cases of rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood seen at the Ahmadu Bello University hospitals in Kaduna and Zaria (nigeria) over five years is presented. The cases were equally divided between the head region and the urogenital system. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and sarcoma botryoides were the only histologic types seen. Although the clinical presentations were not different from those reported in other series, the correct diagnosis was not suspected clinically in most of the patients, so the institution of rational management was delayed. Certain aspects of the disease and its therapy in this part of the world are discussed.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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8/11. rhabdomyosarcoma of spermatic cord.

    A case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the spermatic cord is presented and literature reviewed. The spread of this disease to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and the improved results with retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and radical orchiectomy are stressed.
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ranking = 0.1
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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9/11. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract in childhood.

    18 children, 12 boys and 6 girls, were treated in our hospital for rhabdomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract between 1970 and 1980. This period saw a gradual change in the therapeutic approach to this disease as new therapeutic modalities became available. 7 of the patients (39%) died of the disease which, in 5 of them, arose from the prostate. The surviving children have no evidence of recurrent disease, although 1 is still undergoing chemotherapy. Surgical intervention was always required. To date, chemotherapy alone, or in combination with radiation, has not sufficed in our management of rhabdomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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10/11. combined modality therapy with conservation of organ function in childhood genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Recent refinements in the multimodal therapy of childhood genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma have produced striking improvements in long-term survival rates while still preserving pelvic organ function in the majority of cases. Three illustrative cases of childhood pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma are presented. Chemotherapy and surgical staging are employed in all 3 cases, with 2 of the cases requiring additional local tumor excision and intraurethral radiation for control of residual microscopic tumor. While long-term follow-up has not been achieved, all 3 patients have had their pelvic organs preserved and remain tumor-free in follow-up periods ranging from twelve to twenty-four months after the initial diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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