Cases reported "Uterine Cervical Diseases"

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1/15. Cervical/vaginal endometriosis with atypia: A cytohistopathologic study.

    Neoplastic or atypical glandular epithelial cells of uncertain significance were reported in the preoperative smears from 10 women with cervical or vaginal endometriosis. Subsequent conization and vaginal biopsy revealed endometriotic tissue with variable epithelial atypia, but no evidence of in situ or invasive carcinoma. review of the smears revealed appearances similar to those seen in "high cervical sampling" or in smears from patients with tubal metaplasia. The presence of large cohesive cell sheets with retained cell polarity and well-defined cytoplasmic edges, of endometrial cell "whorls" and tubular structures, and of endometrial-like stromal cells coupled with the absence of three-dimensional cell clusters, peripheral cell-sheet crowding, "cell feathering," and pseudostratified cell strips are features helpful in the distinction between cervical/vaginal endometriosis and adenocarcinoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:188-193.
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2/15. A cervical ectopic masquerading as a molar pregnancy.

    We report a case of cervical pregnancy complicated by life threatening hemorrhage. An initial diagnosis of molar pregnancy was made preoperatively. During uterine evacuation she developed profuse hemorrhage which required an emergency hysterectomy for uncontrolled bleeding. Histopathological examination confirmed a cervical pregnancy. The clinical and pathological criteria for the diagnosis and the etiology of cervical pregnancy are discussed.
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3/15. Cystoscopic fistulography: a new technique for the diagnosis of vesicocervical fistula.

    BACKGROUND: Most fistulas communicating with the bladder are large enough to be diagnosed easily, or small enough to close spontaneously without clinical sequel. A vesicocervical fistula is an uncommon event and may be difficult to diagnose. TECHNIQUE: During an operative cystourethroscopy procedure, suspicious areas of the bladder can be probed with a cone tip catheter and injected with contrast dye to visualize the suspected fistula communicating with the bladder. EXPERIENCE: This technique was employed when a double dye test, an intravenous urogram, a cystogram, a computed tomography scan, and a hysterogram failed to localize the fistulous tract in a patient who was 3 weeks postpartum after a repeat cesarean with complaint of persistent urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Cystoscopic catheterization of suspicious lesions in the bladder may visualize an otherwise elusive fistulous tract.
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4/15. Transitional cell metaplasia of the uterine cervix is related to human papillomavirus: molecular analysis in seven patients with cytohistologic correlation.

    BACKGROUND: Transitional cell metaplasia of the uterine cervix is an under-recognized entity in cervical pathology. The underlying etiology and biologic significance remains uncertain. The thin-layer cytology findings and association with human papillomavirus (HPV) have not been studied thoroughly. methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings, thin-layer cytology and histologic features of pure transitional cell metaplasia of the uterine cervix occurring in seven perimenopausal or postmenopausal Chinese women at Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, hong kong, during the period from January, 1998 to April, 2001. Molecular techniques for HPV screening and genotyping using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were employed in the thin-layer cytology specimens and paraffin block material. RESULTS: In all seven patients, transitional cell metaplasia represented an incidental histologic finding. It occurred in the ectocervix, transformation zone, endocervix, or vagina. Histologically, it resembled urothelium of the urinary bladder and was comprised of multilayers of mitotically inactive, immature epithelial cells with vertically aligned oval nuclei, fine chromatin, indistinct nucleoli, and conspicuous longitudinal nuclear grooves. The superficial cells were oriented more horizontally and contained pale-staining cytoplasm similar to umbrella cells. Features consistent with transitional cell metaplasia were identified in two of seven preoperative thin-layer preparations. Cytologically, the affected parabasal cells recapitulated the features that were seen in histologic sections. In addition to the bland nuclear morphology and longitudinal nuclear grooves, the cell borders appeared distinct, and the appearance of a perinuclear cytoplasmic halo was common. Sometimes, the metaplastic cells assumed a spindle shape and appeared as cohesive, streaming cell clusters. Molecular study successfully demonstrated the presence of HPV in all seven patients, mostly in the liquid-based cytology samples. In general, the viral dna load was relatively low; and, for samples in which HPV genotyping was feasible, HPV type 58 was the prevalent genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrates that transitional cell metaplasia of the uterine cervix is related to HPV. It also carries a distinctive cytologic appearance in thin-layer preparations. Based on the limited follow-up data from a small number of reported patients, transitional cell metaplasia seems to run an indolent clinical course. However, its peculiar association with HPV and its possible correlation, both morphologic and histogenetic, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia need further investigation.
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5/15. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus dna from a lymphoma-like lesion of the uterine cervix.

    The case of a 60-year-old woman in whom a lymphoma-like lesion of the cervix was found during an episode of silent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is presented. Fractional curettage was performed because of abnormal endometrial smear. The endocervical curettage specimens were diagnosed as highly suggestive of malignant lymphoma, but microscopic examination of a subsequent hysterectomy specimen revealed a benign lymphoid hyperplasia. Those were retrospectively interpreted as a lymphoma-like lesion of the cervix. In the absence of clinical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis, the results of serologic tests for EBV revealed an active EBV infection. EBV dna was demonstrated in nuclei of large lymphoid cells in endocervical curettage specimens by in situ hybridization. She is alive and well 32 months postoperatively. When female patients with lymphoma-like lesions of the lower genital tract are encountered, examinations for EBV are recommended.
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6/15. Cervical stump necrosis and septic shock after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy.

    The decision to retain or remove the cervix when performing laparoscopic hysterectomy remains a topic of debate. A 38-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LASH) for menometrorrhagia. Two weeks later, she was seen at our institution with septic shock. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy and was found to have cervical stump necrosis and peritonitis. Trachelectomy was performed. The postoperative course was prolonged by persistent fever, pleural effusion, and abscess collections. Although rare, cervical stump necrosis is a possible complication of LASH.
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7/15. Invasive inflammatory pseudotumor of uterine cervix: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the cervix uteri has been reported in only one patient. Here, we present a case of cervical IPT with bilateral parametrial involvement causing hydroureteronephrosis. CASE: A 48-year-old, gravida 2, para 1, woman was referred for evaluation of lower abdominal pain and right-sided hydroureteronephrosis. On speculum and colposcopic examinations, the cervix appeared normal. Computed tomography scan revealed a 5 cm x 4 cm mass in the cervix invading both parametria. At laparotomy, the cervix was globally enlarged and both parametria were infiltrated by a tumor of rubbery consistency. After freeing both ureters, the cervix was removed with bilateral parametria and 2-cm vaginal cuff. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells and diffuse infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the lymphocytes were polyclonal. Immunostaining for smooth muscle actin was negative. The tumor was thus identified as inflammatory pseudotumor. Cervical stroma, bilateral parametria, and subepithelial tissues of the vagina were involved with tumor. However, invasion was not identified in the epithelia of the cervix and vagina or surgical margins of the resected specimen. Postoperative course was uneventful. There is no evidence of recurrent disease 8 months following surgery. CONCLUSION: The case we present is the second reported case of cervical IPT. It is unique in showing locally aggressive behavior. Surgical resection appears to be the treatment of choice for IPT.
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8/15. Successful treatment of cervical stenosis with hysteroscopic canalization before embryo transfer in patients undergoing IVF: a case series.

    The course of the transfer catheter through the cervical canal is one of the most important issues for a successful embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Technically difficult ETs due to cervical stenosis are associated with reduced chance of pregnancy after assisted reproductive procedures. In the current case series, we report on three patients with cervical stenosis who underwent IVF-ET cycles. These three patients, in whom ET was classified as "difficult," failed to conceive with previous ET attempts. An intervention to create a cervical tract was performed with operative hysteroscopy under general anesthesia before transcervical ET. After the hysteroscopic shaving procedure, we observed quite an improvement in access to the endometrial cavity during ET procedure. These patients had significantly easier ET procedures compared with previous attempts and achieved clinical pregnancies. Hysteroscopic revision of the cervical canal results in easier ET and improves pregnancy rates in patients with cervical stenosis and histories of difficult ET.
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9/15. Postabortal paracervical abscess as a complication of paracervical block anesthesia. A case report.

    A paracervical abscess occurred after paracervical block anesthesia was administered for induced abortion in an 18-year-old multigravida. She presented with vaginal, low abdominal and low back pain and with nausea, vomiting, chills and fever. Incision and drainage of the abscess were performed and a vaginal drain inserted under antibiotic coverage. Cultures of the abscess contents revealed multiple anaerobic organisms. laparoscopy showed normal pelvic organs, and the peritoneal fluid cultures were negative. Postoperatively the patient became afebrile and was discharged after three days on antibiotics. To our knowledge, this case report is the first one on paracervical abscess as a complication of induced abortion with paracervical block anesthesia.
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10/15. Deep nabothian cysts of the uterine cervix. A possible source of confusion with minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum).

    Four cases in which nabothian cysts extended deeply into the cervical wall are described. Well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the minimal-deviation type (adenoma malignum) was an initial diagnostic consideration in three of them. The cysts were incidental findings in patients 32 to 79 years of age, who underwent hysterectomy for uterine leiomyomas (two cases), uterine prolapse (one case), and a leiomyosarcoma of the pelvic soft tissues (one case). Gross examination of the cervix in each case revealed multiple mucin-filled cysts that extended almost to the serosa or paracervical connective tissue. On microscopic examination, the cysts were characteristic of nabothian cysts, being lined by columnar to flattened endocervical-type cells devoid of atypical features or mitotic activity. Postoperative follow-up, available in three patients, was uneventful over periods of 1, 6, and 10 years. Deep nabothian cysts are an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion of the cervix that is important to distinguish from adenocarcinoma.
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