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1/103. Cervical sarcoma botryoides. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoma botryoides is a rare gynecologic malignancy. Reported treatment protocols range from localized resection of the tumor to radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Recently, limited excisional surgery combined with chemotherapy has contributed to excellent survival rates and preserved bladder and rectal function. CASE: We report a case of cervical sarcoma botryoides with minimal invasion. The patient had primary surgical treatment with complete resection of the tumor without adjuvant chemotherapy. Four months after surgery she presented with extensive metastatic retroperitoneal disease and died two weeks later. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of this patient suggests that complete surgical resection in cases of localized disease is not adequate therapy for sarcoma botryoides. Adjuvant chemotherapy should always be used, even at a very early stage.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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2/103. radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis: report of two cases.

    radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis is a rare clinical entity caused by vascular insufficiency to the rectosigmoid colon. It most commonly occurs after radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. We present herein the cases of two patients who developed radiation-associated coloproctitis with transmural necrosis and eventual perforation. Perforation of the rectosigmoid colon occurred 3.5 years after radiotherapy in case 1, a 46-year-old woman, and presented as a well-defined small area of transmural necrosis. Conversely, in case 2, a 55-year-old woman, it occurred 1.5 years after radiotherapy, and presented as segmental, diffuse transmural necrosis. The lesion in case 1 had been caused by intramural vascular obliteration due to marked fibrosis of the bowel wall, while that in case 2 had been caused by occlusion of the mesenteric artery with thrombosis. Both patients underwent Hartmann's resection without rectal excision, and survived the perforative event.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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3/103. Alternative medicine in gynecologic oncology: A case report.

    A patient with Stage IIB squamous cell cancer of the cervix presented 10 days into her primary radiation therapy with neutropenic fever and diarrhea requiring hospitalization and delay in treatment. The patient's history revealed extensive use of alternative therapies including potential toxic botanicals. This case raises the possibility that a patient's use of alternative therapies may have caused toxicity and delayed primary therapy. Gynecologic oncology patients may be using alternative therapies justifying the need for incorporating this classification into the historical exam.
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ranking = 4
keywords = gynecologic
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4/103. adenoma malignum. Report of a case with cytologic and colposcopic findings and immunohistochemical staining with antimucin monoclonal antibody HIK-1083.

    BACKGROUND: adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix was first described by Gusserow. We report here a case with cytologic, histologic and colposcopic findings and immunohistochemistry for HIK-1083. CASE: A 42-year-old female was noted to have a probable adenoma malignum due to the detection of atypical cells classified as V. On colposcopy, comma-shaped, atypical vessels spread over the entire cervical area. Histologic findings were characteristic of tumor invasion beyond the layer of cervical glandular ducts. Immunohistochemical detection of CEA was negative, but HIK-1083, which recognizes gastric glandular mucous cells, was positive. CONCLUSION: For a definitive diagnosis of adenoma malignum of the cervix, immunohistochemical examination for an appropriate marker, such as HIK-1083, should be added to the routine gynecologic examination, cytologic and histopathologic examination, and colposcopy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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5/103. Laparoscopic port-site recurrence following surgery for a stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with negative lymph nodes.

    BACKGROUND: Port-site metastases are commonly reported after laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cancer, but have also been reported in patients with cervical or endometrial cancer with positive lymph nodes. Recently, a case of port-site recurrence after laparoscopic surgery for a patient with node-negative early-stage adenocarcinoma of the cervix was reported. We report the first case of port-site metastasis in a patient with stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with negative lymph nodes. CASE: A 31-year-old woman had a laparoscopy for pelvic pain. Under anesthesia, she was noted to have a grossly abnormal-looking cervix and a biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. She was referred to a gynecological oncologist and underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection through a transverse lower abdominal incision 6 weeks later. Nineteen months postoperatively, she presented with a soft tissue mass in a suprapubic laparoscopic trocar site. CONCLUSION: It is postulated that cells dislodged at the time of cervical manipulation and biopsy may have passed through the fallopian tubes and implanted in the laparoscopic port site due to the "chimney effect" caused by the pneumoperitoneum.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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6/103. Primary high-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphoma of the cervix presenting as a common endocervical polyp.

    Lymphomas of the uterine cervix are uncommon neoplasms and typically appear as diffuse cervical enlargement. We describe a rare case of primary high-grade lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the uterine cervix in a 46-year-old white woman. The tumor, incidentally disclosed at gynecological examination, appeared as a single common polyp. Immunohistochemical investigation found the lesion to consist of a monomorphic CD20-positive infiltrate of large blasts and rare intermingling centrocyte-like lymphoid cells. A dense area of monotypic (lambda light-chain restriction) plasma cells was found beneath the endocervical mucosa; only a few scattered lymphoepithelial lesions were present. The neoplastic cells did not stain for CD5, CD10, CD23, CD43, or cyclin d1. A bone marrow biopsy displayed a paratrabecular, centrocyte-like B-cell infiltration, but no lymphadenopathy was detected by instrumental examination (computed tomographic scan, magnetic resonance imaging). The tumor was successfully treated by multiagent chemotherapy followed by total hysterectomy. To our knowledge, this case represents the second reported example of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphoma occurring in the uterine cervix. We highlight the very unusual gross appearance of this case and emphasize the difficulty of interpreting lymphoid infiltrates in the lower genital tract by microscopy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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7/103. Fatal recurrent ureteroarterial fistulas after exenteration for cervical cancer.

    BACKGROUND: Ureteroarterial fistula (UAF) is a rare occurrence. It can be difficult to diagnose with a high mortality. We report a case of a recurrent UAF. CASE: A 38-year-old women diagnosed with cervical cancer had undergone pelvic exenteration for severe radiation-induced necrosis with a vesicovaginal and rectovaginal fistula after primary radiation therapy. hemorrhage into the urinary tract necessitated surgical intervention and vascular repair with a femoral-femoral bypass. Although these measures were effective, the patient died 6 months later following an acute hemorrhage into her conduit. Arteriogram revealed a second UAF. CONCLUSION: When urinary tract bleeding occurs in patients previously diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy and treated with radiation therapy and extensive surgery with urinary diversion, UAF should be considered in the differential diagnoses.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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8/103. Radical abdominal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with uterine conservation and subsequent pregnancy in the treatment of early invasive cervical cancer.

    BACKGROUND: Recently, pregnancies in patients after radical vaginal trachelectomy and laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy have been reported. Radical abdominal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with uterine conservation has been previously described; however, subsequent outcome and pregnancy has not. methods: Three patients with cervical carcinoma, 1 with stage IA1 with lymph-vascular space invasion and 2 with stage IA2, were treated with radical abdominal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with uterine conservation. RESULTS: All patients underwent the planned procedure with no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. All patients had return to normal menstrual function. One patient had a successful pregnancy delivered at 39 weeks by cesarean section and is now subsequently pregnant with a second pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Radical abdominal trachelectomy is a technically feasible operation that uses operative techniques familiar to the American-trained gynecologic oncologist and results in wider parametrial resection than radical vaginal trachelectomy. In young patients desiring to retain fertility, successful pregnancies after radical abdominal trachelectomy are possible. Intraoperative and postoperative complications are likely to be lower with an abdominal versus a vaginal approach. Long-term survival of patients treated with radical trachelectomy for early invasive cervical cancer are yet to be determined.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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9/103. Cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma of the cervix at the drain site.

    BACKGROUND: Metastasis to the skin occurs rarely in gynecologic cancer, especially in cervical carcinoma. Although carcinoma of the cervix is the second to the fourth most common malignancy in women, cutaneous involvement originating from cervical cancer is particularly unusual, even in the terminal stage of the disease. CASE: We present a case of cervical cancer recurrence with skin metastasis. The extensive skin lesion on the abdominal wall occurred 4 years after radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. This was a biopsy-proven metastasis from the patient's primary cervical carcinoma. CONCLUSION: As far we know this is the second case (after Copas et al., Gynecol Oncol 1995;56:102-4) of skin and subcutaneous tissues metastasis from cervical carcinoma at the drain site. Palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a useful role in controlling symptoms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gynecologic
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10/103. disseminated intravascular coagulation in gynecologic cancer.

    Disturbances in the blood coagulation mechanism are seen by the obstetrician and gynecologist as rare complications of abruptio placentae, retained dead fetus syndrome, amniotic fluid embolism, toxemia, saline amnioinfusion, and septic abortion. Two cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicating gynecologic malignancy are presented. Laboratory studies showed thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and increased fibrin degradation products. Derangements of hemostasis in patients with malignancy are discussed from a clinical viewpoint.
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ranking = 5
keywords = gynecologic
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