Cases reported "Uterine Cervicitis"

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1/19. Nested polymerase chain reaction on vaginal smears of tuberculous cervicitis. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculous cervicitis (TC) is a rare disease the diagnosis of which is based on the microscopic and/or cultural recognition of mycobacteria. In recent years, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), especially with double-round amplification ("nested" PCR [nPCR]), has been increasingly used for rapid detection of mycobacteria in clinical samples. CASE: The present case is the first example of tuberculosis diagnosed with the aid of nPCR amplification of mycobacterial dna fragments on smeared and Papanicolaou-stained cytologic material. First detected on vaginal smears, the amplicon IS6110 was subsequently identified also on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. CONCLUSION: The technique described here could also be applied to aspiration cytology smears to give rapid and accurate information on mycobacterial infections.
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2/19. Abnormal cervicovaginal smears due to endometriosis: a continuing problem.

    endometriosis may be challenging when identified on cervicovaginal smears (CVS), leading to an incorrect interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), or atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) including adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). awareness of cervical endometriosis, particularly in predisposed patients, is crucial for a correct diagnosis. While cervical endometriosis has been reported to be a diagnostic pitfall of glandular abnormalities, its characteristic features are still not well-established. This may partially be attributed to the varied cytomorphologic features endometriosis shows, depending on menstrual cycle hormonal changes. We describe our experience with three examples where CVS were interpreted as either AGUS or HSIL, which led to a hysterectomy in 2 of 3 patients. Cervical endometriosis needs to be considered with other well-known benign conditions that mimic glandular abnormalities, including cervicitis, tubal metaplasia, lower uterine segment sampling, and microglandular hyperplasia. Published series and our own experience lead us to suggest that these smears will continue to present diagnostic difficulties.
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3/19. An interesting case presentation: a possible new route for perinatal acquisition of Chlamydia.

    chlamydia trachomatis is currently the most common sexually transmitted disease in the united states. The prevalence in pregnant women ranges between 2% and 47%. It is well known that C trachomatis can be transmitted from the genital tract of an infected mother to her newborn infant, causing conjunctivitis or pneumonia or both, along with their longstanding complications. A review of the literature failed to show, however, conclusive evidence of transmission of infection to the newborn infant when the infant was born by cesarean section with intact amniotic membranes. We present a case of a young black woman with a history of chlamydia cervicitis during pregnancy whose infant was delivered by cesarean section because of failure to progress. She gave birth to a healthy term infant who developed ophthalmia neonatorum on the 3rd day of life. Examinations of conjunctival scrapings with direct fluorescent staining (chlamydia MicroTrak) performed on the 1st and 3rd day of life were positive. The initial test was performed because of the maternal history. The infant was mildly symptomatic at the time the study was repeated for confirmation. Our findings strongly suggest the possibility of either transmembrane or transplacental route of infection in the pathogenesis of neonatal chlamydia infection. Further study is needed to confirm this possibility.
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4/19. cytomegalovirus infection of the cervix: morphological observations in five cases of a possibly under-recognised condition.

    AIMS: Histologically diagnosed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the cervix is rare and the associated morphological features are not well described. This study describes histopathological findings in five biopsies from four patients with CMV cervicitis. methods: CMV inclusions were identified in five cervical biopsies from four patients in a single institution over eight months. The clinical notes were reviewed, the morphological features documented, and immunohistochemical staining for CMV performed. CMV immunohistochemical staining was also performed on 30 consecutive cervical biopsies in which inclusions were not seen histologically. RESULTS: None of the patients was immunocompromised but one was postnatal. Numbers of CMV inclusions ranged from occasional to abundant and they were located mainly in endocervical glandular epithelial cells but also in endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Inclusions were not seen in squamous cells. Inclusions were eosinophilic and were intracytoplasmic rather than intranuclear. They were positive immunohistochemically for CMV. Associated morphological features included fibrin thrombi within small blood vessels (three cases), dense active inflammatory infiltrates (five cases), lymphoid follicles (two cases), vacuolation of glandular epithelial cells (two cases), and reactive changes in glandular epithelial cells (two cases). CMV inclusions were not identified in the 30 additional cases that underwent immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection of the cervix may be more common than is thought. patients are usually immunocompetent and require no treatment. Morphological features such as a dense inflammatory cell infiltrate with lymphoid follicles, and especially fibrin thrombi within small vessels, should alert the pathologist to look closely for the pathognomonic CMV inclusion bodies.
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5/19. Measles cervicitis. Report of a case with cytologic and molecular biologic analysis.

    We report on a 20-year-old woman who, in her third month of pregnancy, presented with a morbilliform rash, fever and diarrhea. Many multinucleate superficial, intermediate and metaplastic cells were noted in the cervical cytologic preparation. The presence of the measles virus in cells from the cervix was confirmed by the amplification of measles complementary dna (cDNA) by the polymerase chain reaction. The patient's cervical Papanicolaou smear was unremarkable on reexamination four months after the onset of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first verified reported case of infection of the uterine cervix by the measles virus.
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6/19. Hysteroscopic diagnosis and treatment of endocervical ossification: a case report.

    We describe a case of osseous metaplasia into the cervical canal in a 41-year-old woman. The patient had a history of primary infertility, pelvic pain, chronic endocervicitis, and bone formation in the upper third of the cervical canal. After antibiotic therapy, we removed bone fragments by operative hysteroscopy using grasping forceps. The fragments were completely removed with no evidence of recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Chronic endocervicitis may cause endocervical ossification and should be ruled out before surgical removal of bone fragments in order to ensure definitive resolution and prevent recurrence.
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7/19. Follicular cervicitis: a case report.

    Chronic follicular cervicitis (CFC) is a benign inflammatory condition which can be easily diagnosed with a fair degree of assurance on pap stained cervical smears, thus preventing the need for cervical biopsy. We report a case of CFC in a postmenopausal woman.
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8/19. neisseria meningitidis in specimens from urogenital sites. Is increased awareness necessary?

    neisseria meningitidis serogroups B type 2 and Y were isolated from urogenital specimens from three heterosexual patients. The first patient was a young man with the clinical signs and microscopic findings of a typical gonococcal urethritis. The second was a middle-aged woman with cervicitis, in whom neither neisseria gonorrhoeae nor chlamydia trachomatis were demonstrated by culture. In the third patient, a young woman, N. meningitidis was associated with cervicitis, acute salpingitis, and peritonitis. The patients' clinical symptoms responded quickly to antibiotic treatment. Meningococci of the same serogroup/serotype as the index cases were demonstrated in two of the sexual consorts in pharyngeal specimens but not in genitourinary specimens. Orogenital sexual practice seemed to be the most likely route of transmission. During the period of this study (August 1989-March 1990), the three meningococcal strains observed at the authors' laboratory represented 20% of the total number of urogenital isolates of pathogenic Neisseria. A greater awareness of this problem from medical, diagnostic, epidemiologic, and legal viewpoints is therefore needed.
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9/19. A new intermediate adenovirus type causing conjunctivitis.

    A new adenovirus of intermediate type involved in conjunctivitis has been isolated. The virus is related to adenovirus types 13 and 30 by neutralization and to types 10 and 19 by hemagglutination inhibition. Since 1976 the agent has been causing sporadic cases of conjunctivitis in different parts of The netherlands. Twenty-three cases have been established by virus isolation from the affected eyes. The symptoms of the disease range from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis to pharyngoconjunctival fever. Also, adenovirus type 13-30/10-19 has been isolated from the cervix uteri of four women in a series of 1,477 women with cervicitis.
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10/19. Squamous cell carcinoma associated with amoebic cervicitis. Report of a case.

    A case of squamous cell carcinoma associated with amebiasis is presented. Protozoa identified as entamoeba histolytica were found in a routine Papanicolaou smear and in the cervical biopsy of a young woman following the initial diagnosis of cervical cancer and the institution of a radiation therapy regimen. No amoebae were found in repeated stool specimens. The late detection and diagnosis of amebiasis precluded any possible changes in the management of the case. Initial follow-up for the carcinoma demonstrated that the patient was not responding well to therapy; her failure to return to the clinic precluded long-term follow-up and treatment for the amebiasis.
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