Cases reported "Uterine Hemorrhage"

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1/517. fibrinogen St. Gallen I (gamma 292 Gly--> Val): evidence for structural alterations causing defective polymerization and fibrinogenolysis.

    fibrinogen St. Gallen I was detected in an asymptomatic Swiss woman. Routine coagulation tests revealed a prolonged thrombin and reptilase time. Functionally measured fibrinogen levels were considerably lower than those determined immunologically. polymerization of fibrin monomers derived from purified fibrinogen was delayed in the presence of either calcium or EDTA. Normal fibrinopeptide a and B release by thrombin was established. An abnormal degradation of fibrinogen St. Gallen I by plasmin was observed. Fragment D1 of normal fibrinogen was fully protected against further proteolysis in the presence of 10 mM calcium, whereas fibrinogen St. Gallen I was partially further degraded to fragments D2 and D3. In the presence of 10 mM EDTA, the conversion of variant fragment D1 to D2 was accelerated whereas the degradation of fragment D2 to D3 was delayed in comparison to degradation of fragments D1 and D2 of normal fibrinogen. Three high-affinity calcium binding sites were found in both normal and variant fibrinogen. mutation screening with SSCP analysis suggested a mutation in exon VIII of the gamma-chain gene. Cycle sequencing of this gene portion revealed a single base substitution from G to T of the base 7527, leading to replacement of gamma 292 glycine by valine. The same mutation has already been described for the fibrinogen variant baltimore I. Molecular modeling was performed of a part of the gamma-chain containing the mutation site, based on recently published X-ray crystal structures of human fibrinogen fragment D and of a 30 kD C-terminal part of the gamma-chain. Significant structural alterations due to the substitution of glycine by valine at gamma 292 were observed, e.g. spreading of the protein backbone, probably leading to a modified accessibility of the plasmic cleavage sites in the gamma-chain at 356 Lys and 302 Lys. A shift of gamma 297 Asp that is involved in interactions of fragment D with the Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-peptide was noted by molecular modeling. The latter observation is compatible with delayed polymerization of fibrin monomers. ( info)

2/517. uterine artery embolization--a successful treatment to control bleeding cervical pregnancy with a simultaneous intrauterine gestation.

    A case of a woman suffering from a bleeding heterotopic cervical pregnancy is described. The concurrent cervical pregnancy and intrauterine gestation were diagnosed by ultrasound and bleeding was initially controlled with selective fluoroscopic uterine artery embolization. A selective fetal reduction was done with ultrasound-guided intracardiac potassium chloride. uterine artery embolization has been used successfully to control haemorrhage in cervical pregnancies when the main goal was to allow preservation of the uterus, thus maintaining potential fertility. This is the first report of arterial embolization used to control bleeding for maintaining a concurrent intrauterine heterotopic pregnancy in an in-vitro fertilization patient. Unfortunately, subsequent conservative measures led to undesired outcome. This procedure initially controlled the bleeding without disrupting the intrauterine fetal cardiac activity. ( info)

3/517. Abnormal uterine bleeding as a presenting sign of metastases to the uterine corpus, cervix and vagina in a breast cancer patient on tamoxifen therapy.

    Metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital cancers are uncommon. The ovaries are most often affected with the breast and gastrointestinal tract being the most common sites of the primary malignancy. Metastases to the uterus from extragenital cancers are significantly rarer than metastases to the ovaries and in the majority of cases the ovaries are also involved. A case of metastases restricted to the uterine corpus, cervix and vagina from breast carcinoma, without involvement of the ovaries, is described. The patient who had been on tamoxifen therapy presented with postmenopausal bleeding. The diagnosis of uterine metastases was established during endometrial ablation and confirmed by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. This case illustrates that abnormal uterine bleeding in a breast cancer patient, regardless of whether she is receiving or not receiving tamoxifen, should always alert the physician to consider the possibility of uterine metastases from breast carcinoma. ( info)

4/517. Pelvic arterial embolization for control of obstetric hemorrhage: a five-year experience.

    OBJECTIVE: Obstetric hemorrhage is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and death. postpartum hemorrhage that cannot be controlled by local measures has traditionally been managed by bilateral uterine artery or hypogastric artery ligation. These techniques have a high failure rate, often resulting in hysterectomy. In contrast, endovascular embolization techniques have a success rate of >90%. An additional benefit of the latter procedure is that fertility is maintained. We report our experience at Stanford University Medical Center in which this technique was used in 6 cases within the past 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: Six women between the ages of 18 and 41 years underwent placement of arterial catheters for emergency (n = 3) or prophylactic (n = 3) control of postpartum bleeding. Specific diagnoses included cervical pregnancy (n = 1), uterine atony (n = 3), and placenta previa and accreta (n = 2). RESULTS: Control of severe or anticipated postpartum hemorrhage was obtained with transcatheter embolization in 4 patients. A fifth patient had balloon occlusion of the uterine artery performed prophylactically, but embolization was not necessary. In a sixth case, bleeding could not be controlled in time, and hysterectomy was performed. The only complication observed with this technique was postpartum fever in 1 patient, which was treated with antibiotics and resolved within 7 days. CONCLUSIONS: uterine artery embolization is a superior first-line alternative to surgery for control of obstetric hemorrhage. Use of transcatheter occlusion balloons before embolization allows timely control of bleeding and permits complete embolization of the uterine arteries and hemostasis. Given the improved ultrasonography techniques, diagnosis of some potential high-risk conditions for postpartum hemorrhage, such as placenta previa or accreta, can be made prenatally. The patient can then be prepared with prophylactic placement of arterial catheters, and rapid occlusion of these vessels can be achieved if necessary. ( info)

5/517. Menstrual disorders. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is defined as abnormal endometrial bleeding without structural pathology. Although, abnormal uterine bleeding may occur in women of all ages, it is a particularly common issue for adolescents. This article reviews the normal menstrual cycle and the abnormal menstrual cycles. Familiarity with the normal menstrual cycle is necessary to identify the possible causes of abnormal bleeding and aids in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. ( info)

6/517. Preterm labor and accidental hemorrhage after disopyramide therapy in pregnancy. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of arrhythmias during pregnancy is complicated by concerns about the safety of antiarrhythmic therapy. This is the first case report of preterm labor and abruptio placentae following the administration of disopyramide during pregnancy. CASE: A 26-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1, was diagnosed as having wolff-parkinson-white syndrome during the third trimester of pregnancy. Recurrent episodes of supra-ventricular tachycardia were refractory to medical therapy and required repeated direct current cardioversion. Administration of disopyramide led to the initiation of painful uterine contractions and accidental hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Caution must be exercised during the use of disopyramide during pregnancy, and intensive monitoring should be instituted to avoid adverse maternal and fetal effects. ( info)

7/517. choriocarcinoma co-existent with an intact pregnancy: case report and review of the literature.

    A patient presenting with antepartum haemorrhage due to a vaginal metastasis of choriocarcinoma is reported. Following delivery she was successfully treated with chemotherapy and surgery. This report details this unusual presentation and reviews the literature on this rare condition. ( info)

8/517. Spontaneous resolution of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in the second trimester.

    Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy is a serious complication of pregnancy. Therapy includes treating the underlying cause, maintenance of blood volume, replacement of depleted clotting factors, and often delivery of the fetus and placenta. We present a case of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy occurring at 19 weeks' gestation that resolved spontaneously with conservative management. ( info)

9/517. Vaginoscopy using hysteroscope for diagnosis of vaginal bleeding during childhood: case report.

    Vaginal bleeding is an uncommon and alarming symptom for children, and serious underlying causes should be excluded. Though vaginal bleeding during childhood was mostly associated with precocious puberty, the physician should keep in mind that local vaginal lesions such infectious vaginitis, vaginal trauma, and vaginal foreign bodies frequently present vaginal bleeding. A 10-year-old girl who denied any traumatic injuries or sexual abuse presented with profuse vaginal bleeding. She had normal development milestones and had no signs of thelarche or adrenarche. Her hymen was intact and the basal measurements of sex hormones including tyrotropic hormone and thyroxine were all within reference ranges. Finally, a laceration of the vaginal wall was found by vaginoscopy using a hysteroscope under general anesthesia and treated using gauze packing. We must emphasize the importance of vaginoscopy and examination under anesthesia in a child with vaginal bleeding to exclude local vaginal lesions. In addition, vaginoscopy using a hysteroscope makes the examination efficient and cost effective. ( info)

10/517. trisomy 12 in juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary during pregnancy. A report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Granulosa cell tumors constitute only 5% of ovarian neoplasms, and their coexistence with pregnancy is extremely rare. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor has a good prognosis if it is confined to the ovary, but this type behaves more aggressively than the adult type at advanced stages. CASES: We report on successful completion of two singleton pregnancies and deliveries of normal infants in two young women with juvenile granulosa cell tumor diagnosed and treated during pregnancy. This tumor has rarely been described in association with pregnancy. The presence of trisomy 12 as a single chromosomal abnormality was detected in these two tumors. Both tumors were localized strictly to the ovary, so conservative surgery was applied and proved sufficient to remove all tumor tissue. Follow-up showed no signs of recurrence 18 and 53 months after the interventions. CONCLUSION: These cases support the contention that trisomy 12 is a nonrandom chromosome abnormality in juvenile granulosa cell tumors and that pregnancy may affect nuclear stability in this tumor. ( info)
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