Cases reported "Vagus Nerve Diseases"

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1/6. Neurogenic tumors of the cervical vagus nerve: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Nerve sheath tumors arising from the cervical vagus nerve are extremely rare. These tumors most often present as asymptomatic, slowly enlarging, lateral neck masses and therefore often come initially to the attention of otolaryngologists and general surgeons. Because they are nerve tumors, however, neurosurgeons must be able to recognize and treat these rare entities. We report three cases of schwannoma and one case of neurofibroma of the cervical vagus nerve that were encountered at our center (louisiana State University Medical Center) during a 31-year period. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patients ranged from 31 to 61 years of age at the time of presentation to louisiana State University Medical Center. Presenting complaints included hoarseness, Horner's syndrome, and palpation of an enlarging, asymptomatic, cervical mass. Reviews of systems revealed episodes of aspiration for one patient and frequent respiratory illnesses for two patients. These episodes were possibly related to their tumors. Imaging studies demonstrated well-circumscribed masses in the region of the carotid sheath. INTERVENTION: Using microsurgical techniques, gross total resection of all four tumors was accomplished. For one patient, the vagus nerve needed to be divided and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. For the other three patients, resection of the tumor was achieved with the vagus nerve in continuity. CONCLUSION: Vagal nerve schwannomas and neurofibromas in the neck are rare neoplasms. We present four cases of these benign tumors. The pathological features, epidemiological characteristics, presentation, differential diagnosis, and management are discussed. Gross total resection with preservation of the vagus nerve remains the treatment of choice.
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2/6. Vagal paraganglioma. Report of a case surgically treated and review of the literature.

    The authors report the observation of one case of vagal paraganglioma occurred in a young woman. The tumor manifested itself as a left sub-mandibular tumescence; the very first diagnostic approach was achieved through echography, which showed a mass behind the internal carotid artery and compressing the internal jugular vein. The following examinations, represented by neck CT, NMR, angiography and fine needle aspiration initially directed towards the suspicion of chemodectoma. Only at operation, the anatomical situation of the tumor, which encapsulated the vagus nerve and the subsequent results of the hystological examination revealed the correct diagnosis of vagal paraganglioma.
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3/6. Isolated vagus nerve palsy probably associated with herpes simplex virus infection.

    vagus nerve palsy caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rare. Here, we present a 29-year-old man with acute onset of right side otalgia and sore throat, followed by dysphonia, dysphagia and some vesicles seen on the deep soft palate. laryngoscopy revealed right vocal cord palsy. neck to chest CT did not reveal local lesion. Three months later, his serum HSV IgG antibody titer was eight times elevation and a throat swab culture for virus isolation yielded HSV type I. T2-weighted images of neck MRI showed abnormally high signal intensity on the right sub-glottis region with gadolinium enhancement that was compatible with local infection. Thereafter, one course of acyclovir; was given. Three months after finishing the acyclovir, his symptoms were almost gone and neck MRI did not show the aforementioned lesions. HSV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients with idiopathic dysphonia and dysphagia.
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4/6. Concomitant vagal neurofibroma and aplasia of the internal carotid artery in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    We report the case of a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 who had both aplasia of an internal carotid artery (ICA) and a vagal neurofibroma. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of the simultaneous presence of these two rare disorders in a single patient. We believe that this is also the first report of an absence of an ICA in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. The patient was a 19-year-old woman who complained of a slowly growing neck mass. The mass occupied the right parapharyngeal space and upper cervical region. The patient had no other masses on physical examination, but widespread cafe au lait spots were evident. This led us to suspect the presence of a vagal neurofibroma. The tumor was removed, and pathology confirmed the diagnosis. No intracranial aneurysms were detected on cerebral angiography.
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5/6. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the vagus nerve.

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, malignant neoplasm, which arises from extraskeletal sites in 30-40 per cent of cases. It is extremely rare in children. We present a novel case of childhood mesenchymal chondsarcoma arising from the vagus nerve in the neck, resulting in paralysis of the right vocal fold. The clinicopathologic features and management of this case are described along with a brief discussion on the aetiology of vocal fold paralysis in this age group. Current literature on extraskeletal presentation of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is reviewed.
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6/6. Resection of cervical vagal schwannoma via a post-auricular approach.

    Cervical vagal schwannomas are extremely rare and gross total resection is the standard treatment modality. However, because the conventional cervical approach leaves an incision scar in a visible area, other approaches need to be developed for young women who want the postoperative scar to be invisible. A 28-year-old female underwent complete resection of a 4x4 cm tumor in her right upper neck via a post-auricular approach using an inverted V-shaped incision along the post-auricular sulcus and hairline. The tumor was a schwannoma originating from the right cervical vagus nerve. Postoperatively, right vocal cord paralysis developed despite careful dissection but completely recovered within 6 months after surgery. The patient was satisfied with an invisible external scar which was hidden by her auricle and hair. A cervical vagal schwannoma can be successfully removed by making an incision in a potentially invisible area.
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