Cases reported "Vascular Neoplasms"

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1/17. Ectopic corticotroph adenoma in the cavernous sinus: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas causing Cushing's disease are often difficult to identify because of their variable locations and their small size. This report presents histological evidence of an ectopic ACTH-secreting adenoma located entirely within the cavernous sinus. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old woman presented with central obesity, hypertension, and osteoporosis. Endocrinological evaluation suggested the presence of an acth-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, imaging studies, including dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, did not reveal any visible lesions in the pituitary gland. Bilateral cavernous sinus sampling demonstrated a large central/peripheral ACTH gradient, with a right/left ACTH gradient. The patient was treated as having pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease, until she died suddenly as a result of acute respiratory failure. INTERVENTION: In a postmortem histological examination, an ACTH-secreting adenoma was found in the right cavernous sinus, which was completely surrounded by dura mater and had no direct connection with the pituitary gland. CONCLUSION: Although they are rare, such adenomas located in the cavernous sinus should be recognized as one of the reasons for inaccurate cavernous sinus sampling and the failure of transsphenoidal surgery for patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
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2/17. Hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the oral mucosa: report of a case with multiple gingival localizations.

    BACKGROUND: Metastases to the oral mucosa are rare, representing less than 1% of the tumors at this site. Most of these metastatic neoplasms originate in the lungs, kidneys, and liver. methods: The clinicopathologic features of an occult hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic to the oral mucosa, are reported. The patient, a 70-year-old male, complained of 3 distinct polypoid, reddish lesions of the antero-inferior alveolar crest and both the right and left postero-superior attached gingiva, without bone involvement. The lesions were excised, with the clinical diagnosis of multiple vascular tumors, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Consecutive sections were immunostained for alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, CEA, cytokeratins, EMA, hepatocyte antigen, PSA, S-100 protein, and thyroglobulin, using the alkaline phosphatase/anti-alkaline phosphatase technique. RESULTS: The morphologic features of the lesions were consistent with the diagnosis of carcinoma with trabecular and glandular patterns and bile secretion; furthermore, immunohistochemical reactivity for alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, cytokeratins, CEA, EMA, and hepatocyte antigen was demonstrated and the hepatic origin of the tumor was postulated. ultrasonography demonstrated a liver mass, which was biopsied and treated by chemoembolization. While no further complications occurred in the oral mucosa, the patient died 8 months after the diagnosis for widespread diffusion of the tumor to the lungs and brain. CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the need to include metastatic tumors in the differential diagnosis of atypical neoplasms of the oral mucosa and to evaluate the opportunity of surgical treatment in order to preserve the functions of the mouth, even if the prognosis of the primary tumors remains unfavorable.
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3/17. Leiomyosarcomas of great vessels.

    Sarcomas of the great vessels are rare. Altogether 400 such cases have been described in the aorta, the pulmonary artery, and inferior vena cava. The clinical symptoms are generally related to embolic phenomena, aneurysm formation, and widespread metastases, especially to bones. With improved diagnostic modalities more cases are diagnosed and treated surgically. Resection of the tumor may prolong the patient s life. In this paper authors present two cases of such rare sarcomas. In our first case a tumor has developed in the thoracic aorta with symptoms of imminent aortic dissection. The tumorous nature of the lesion was revealed only histologically, since neither the operation, nor macroscopic picture gave any clue to its tumorous nature. The second case was a male patient with a huge retroperitoneal tumor arising from the inferior vena cava, which was clinically suspected to be a carcinomaarising in the adrenal gland.
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ranking = 73.45900793344
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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4/17. Histopathological characterization of aortic intimal sarcoma with multiple tumor emboli.

    A case of aortic intimal sarcoma with multiple tumor emboli and distal metastasis is reported. All metastasis (adrenal, spleen) were via the arteries. This case also had independent lung cancer. Macroscopically, the aortic tumor did not form a bulged mass, but had linear ulceration with abundant mural thrombi. Poorly cohesive large atypical cells were seen in the intima of the abdominal aorta without invasion into the media. Tumor cells were disseminated into the mural thrombi on the aorta and embolized its branches. In the metastatic tumor or tumor emboli of the distal artery, there were not only large atypical cells, but also the foci of spindle-shaped cells or epithelioid differentiation. Tumor cells in the aorta were immunohistochemically positive for only vimentin. Muscle-specific actin was positive focally for spindle-shaped cells of tumor emboli and metastatic tumors. Furthermore, cytokeratin-positive cells were scatteredly seen. All tumor cells were negative for factor viii and did not have a histologic or phenotypic analogy with lung cancer. The primary intimal sarcoma in the present case was of undifferentiated non-endothelial intimal stromal cell origin, and may have had multipotential for differentiation. Investigation of the metastatic site was useful for recognizing the features of this tumor.
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ranking = 6.1903170369989
keywords = adrenal
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5/17. A 21-year-old woman with consumptive hypothyroidism due to a vascular tumor expressing type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase.

    We present a 21-yr-old female with a large hepatic vascular tumor and subclinical hypothyroidism. A high level of the thyroid hormone inactivating enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) was detected in her tumor, and the TSH of 26.2 mU/liter returned to normal after surgical resection of the mass. This indicates that the vascular tumor caused this adult's hypothyroidism as has now been documented in nine infants with this syndrome. This first example of consumptive hypothyroidism in an adult indicates that the inactivation rate of thyroid hormone by D3 in a vascular tumor can stress the secretory capacity even of the TSH-stimulated normal adult thyroid gland.
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6/17. Intravascular lymphomatosis.

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare angiotrophic large cell lymphoma producing vascular occlusion of arterioles, capillaries, and venules. Antigenic phenotyping shows that these lymphomas are mostly of B cell type, and less commonly T cell or Ki-1 lymphomas. The central nervous system and skin are the two most commonly affected organs; patients usually present with progressive encephalopathy with mental status changes and focal neurological deficits and skin petechia, purpura, plaques, and discolouration. Other involved organs include adrenal glands, lungs, heart, spleen, liver, pancreas, genital tract, and kidneys. bone marrow, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and lymph nodes are typically spared. fever of unknown origin is another common presentation. Only one case of IVL presenting with disseminated intravascular coagulation and anasarca (generalised oedema) has been reported in the literature. This report describes a postmortem case of a patient with IVL who initially presented with disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated by intracerebral haemorrhage.
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ranking = 73.45900793344
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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7/17. Primary bilateral adrenal intravascular large B-cell lymphoma associated with adrenal failure.

    We report a rare case of bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with adrenal failure. A 66-year-old woman developed symptoms of adrenal failure. The cause of adrenal failure was suspected to be malignant lymphoma based on the high levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor and LDH. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination showed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL). Although complete remission was achieved, recurrence occurred three months later with brain metastases. IVL should be suspected in patients with bilateral adrenal tumors who present with rapidly progressive adrenal failure.
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ranking = 92.854755554983
keywords = adrenal
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8/17. Ectopic growth hormone-releasing adenoma in the cavernous sinus--case report.

    A 55-year-old woman presented a rare ectopic pituitary adenoma in the right cavernous sinus manifesting as acromegaly. The tumor was removed via transsphenoidal approach. Intraoperative observation showed the adenoma was located entirely within the right cavernous sinus, and separated from the normal pituitary gland by the medial wall of the cavernous sinus. There was no communication between the tumor and the pituitary. Histological examination showed a growth hormone-releasing adenoma. Including our case, only eight of 86 reported ectopic adenomas have occurred in the cavernous sinus. Such ectopic presentation may be responsible for failed transsphenoidal surgery for endocrinologically active tumors.
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9/17. Left trisegmentectomy and combined resection of the inferior vena cava, without reconstruction, for giant cystadenocarcinoma of the liver.

    A 54-year-old woman with giant liver cystadenocarcinoma underwent left trisegmentectomy with combined resection of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the right hepatic vein. As a result, only the right inferior hepatic vein was preserved as a drainage vein. Because the perivertebral plexus and the azygos vein were both well developed, neither veno-venous bypass nor IVC reconstruction was performed. The developed collateral veins acted as the venous drainage pathway to maintain a stable systemic circulation. On the seventh postoperative day, portal vein flow dramatically decreased and the patient tended to liver failure. Prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) was administrated via the superior mesenteric artery. The portal flow then gradually increased and liver failure was avoided. Six months after the operation, she was re-admitted due to obstructive jaundice and presented with complete stenosis of the common bile duct (CBD). The jaundice persisted and liver dysfunction progressed. The patient died seven months after the operation. The confluence of the right inferior vein and the IVC could have been deformed, causing outflow blockade. The intrinsic shunt was not good enough to act as the drainage pathway, and IVC reconstruction may have been needed.
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10/17. Intravascular lymphomatosis mimicking disseminated encephalomyelitis and encephalomyelopathy.

    Intravascular lymphomatosis is characterized by the presence of large lymphoma cells predominantly within small vessels. This report presents two patients with diagnostically misleading neurological manifestation of this disease. Case 1, a 63-year-old man, developed a sensorimotor transverse spinal cord syndrome and encephalopathy. Lumbar puncture revealed albuminocytological dissociation. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed progression of multifocal infarct-like lesions in the brain, the thoracic cord and the medullary cone. Autoimmune inflammation was suspected, and the patient received immunosuppressive therapy with immunoglobulins, steroids and azathioprine. He died 18 months after the onset of symptoms. Case 2, a 68-year-old man, showed fluctuating aphasia, disorientation, and fever for several months. brain MRI-scan, electroencephalography (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology were inconclusive. Premortal biopsy of lesions in liver and right suprarenal gland showed no further characterized malignancy. He died 6 months after the first occurrence of symptoms. autopsy of both cases revealed an intravascular lymphomatosis. Tumour cells were seen disseminated in extranodal sites including heart, lung, adrenal gland, spleen, thyroid gland and brain. An intravascular lymphomatosis should be considered when a meningoencephalitic symptomatology is unclear. A biopsy of different organs including the brain and leptomeninges should not be delayed to ensure ante mortem diagnosis and to initiate chemotherapy.
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ranking = 74.45900793344
keywords = adrenal gland, adrenal, gland
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