Cases reported "Vasculitis"

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1/22. Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin b and was discharged well from hospital.
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2/22. Pustular vasculitis of the hands.

    A case of pustular vasculitis of the hands with evidence of systemic involvement is described. A 64-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of large, tense bullae arranged symmetrically over the dorsum of the three radial digits and extending on to the radial aspect of the dorsum of each hand. The bullae caused some discomfort and prevented normal use of her hands. There was no response to antibiotic therapy initiated prior to referral to hospital. Initial investigations revealed a raised white cell count with a neutrophilia, a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate and a raised c-reactive protein. Abnormalities of liver function were detected. Aspirates from the bullae and blood cultures were sterile. The histology of debrided tissue demonstrated a florid neutrophilic dermal infiltrate with many blood vessels associated with prominent fibrin. A diagnosis of pustular vasculitis of the hands was made. The bullae were surgically debrided and treatment with oral corticosteroids was started. Two days after commencement of oral prednisolone, a crusted pustule appeared on her upper cutaneous lip. There was rapid resolution of both the vasculitis of the hands and the pustule on her upper lip following an increase in the dose of oral prednisolone. The patient was discharged on the seventeenth day following admission.
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3/22. retinal vasculitis and posterior pole "hypopyons" as early signs of acute bacterial endophthalmitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis presenting with retinal vasculitis and posterior pole "hypopyons." DESIGN: Observational case report. methods: Observational case report. RESULTS: In a 73-year-old woman, acute postoperative endophthalmitis presented with retinal vasculitis, diffuse retinal hemorrhages, and several posterior pole "hypopyons" that were collections of yellow-white inflammatory debris. The inflammation was located primarily in the posterior one third of the vitreous, and except for severely impaired visual acuity, the classic signs of acute postoperative endophthalmitis were not present until the next day. An immediate pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal injection of vancomycin, amikacin, and dexamethasone was performed. Vitreous and aqueous cultures grew coagulase-negative staphylococcus species. After intravenous and topical therapy for endophthalmitis, the inflammation subsided. Eight weeks after the initial cataract surgery, the best corrected visual acuity of the patient was 20/25. CONCLUSION: Acute postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis may present with atypical clinical signs and inflammation located primarily in the retina and posterior vitreous.
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4/22. Vasculitis associated with septicemia: case report and review of the literature.

    We report an unusual case in which infectious endocarditis presented systemic vasculitis and glomerulonephritis as the initial manifestation of the disease. The patient was a 16-year-old girl with congenital cyanotic heart disease who presented with skin purpura, proteinuria, and hematuria. She had hypergammaglobulinemia, cryoglobulinemia, and positive circulating immune complexes. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis. Her serum C3 level, which was initially normal, became decreased, and prednisolone and azathioprine were administered with a tentative diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Soon after, she developed fever and renal failure. Blood culture grew streptococcus pyogenes, and the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis was made. Eight cases of systemic vasculitis and glomerulonephritis associated with infectious endocarditis have been described in the literature. Infectious endocarditis should be included in the differential diagnosis of systemic vasculitis and glomerulonephritis.
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5/22. Cutaneous lymphocytic vasculitis as the presenting feature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    The authors describe a patient with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with a 3-week history of indurated or ulcerative, purpuric lesions distributed mainly on her legs. A skin biopsy demonstrated a T-cell-mediated lymphocytic vasculitis. After the patient started chemotherapy, the skin lesions abated but she became febrile and a blood culture revealed cryptococci. The cryptococcal infection was successfully treated first with amphotericin b and later with fluconazole. The relationship between lymphocytic vasculitis and acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be an example of paraneoplastic association because both conditions seem to have appeared at about the same time, and both followed a parallel course. Lymphocytic vasculitis may also reflect a new manifestation of host-leukemia interaction.
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6/22. Small vessel vasculitis limited to pleuropulmonary manifestations, possibly induced by endotoxin.

    AIMS: We investigated a rare case of small vessel vasculitis (SVV) limited to pleuropulmonary manifestations, possibly induced by endotoxin, to determine the activation of immuno-mediated cells and endothelia in the pleuropulmonary circulation. methods AND RESULTS: A 44-year-old man with a high fever was X-rayed, revealing bilateral pleural effusion and atelectasis in the chest. His laboratory data were within normal limits except for a high white blood cell count and a high c-reactive protein level. autoantibodies including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody were negative. Endotoxin was detected in his sera, but repeated cultures of sputa, urine, blood and the pleural effusion were negative for bacteria. Video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed and lung and parietal pleura specimens were obtained. histology showed arterioles or small arteries infiltrated by monocytes or neutrophils with fibrinoid necrosis and acute or chronic venulitis. A diagnosis of SVV in the lung and pleura was made. immunohistochemistry revealed that interleukin (IL)-1beta was expressed in monocytes and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 on endothelial cells in the vasculitic lesions in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: Endotoxin possibly induced the inflammation in this apparently unique case of pleuropulmonary small vessel vasculitis. immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of IL-1beta and VCAM-1 which may have caused activation of monocytes and endothelial cells within the vasculitic lesions.
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7/22. purpura fulminans due to streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis following gastric bypass.

    An older female underwent bariatric surgery which was followed by a significant weight loss and diarrhea, from which C. difficile was isolated just before her hospitalization. Less than 48 hours after admission, she became febrile, developed deep venous thrombosis of the leg and a pulmonary embolus. Blood cultures grew out streptococcus pneumoniae and the patient developed purpura fulminans. There was convincing laboratory evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation and a marked depletion of proteins C and S as well as antithrombin. Treatment with ceftriaxone and drotrecogin alfa together with parenteral nutrition led to disappearance of the pathogen and ultimate normalization of the anticoagulant factors. We believe that malabsorption of vitamin k dependent proteins C, S and antithrombin due to bariatric surgery predisposed the patient to purpura fulminans and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
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8/22. Vasculitic purpura with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive acute renal failure in a patient with streptococcus bovis case and Neisseria subflava bacteremia and subacute endocarditis.

    Subacute bacterial endocarditis is frequently associated with extracardiac manifestations and renal failure. Clinical variety of endocarditis manifestation is wide and has the potential to mimic vasculitis. Whereas streptococcus bovis is often isolated and associated with colonic tumors, neisseriaceae are rarely found. An association of subacute bacterial endocarditis and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies has been described. We report on a 62-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with acute oliguric renal failure and a nonpruritic purpural rush without fever. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody diagnostic revealed perinuclear staining with a titre of 1 : 512 and antiproteinase-3 specificity. Immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis without extracapillary proliferation was diagnosed in renal biopsy. Finally, blood cultures became positive for streptococcus bovis and Neisseria flava. echocardiography showed mobile vegetations on tricuspid valve. Under treatment with penicillin g and gentamicin, skin efflorescences and renal function recovered, but vegetations increased. A colonic tumor could be excluded, a disastrous dental status may have been a predisposal factor. When classical findings of subacute bacterial endocarditis are less clear, the presence of renal failure and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in absence of fever may lead to misdiagnosis and deleterious immunosuppressive therapy. Neisseria subflava, an upper respiratory tract commensal, may cause subacute bacterial endocarditis without typical symptoms.
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9/22. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis associated with mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection.

    A variety of possible associations between infection and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis have been reported. We describe a 75-year-old woman who presented with chronic nonproductive cough, migratory polyarthralgias, and microscopic hematuria. She had an elevated perinuclear ANCA and antimyeloperoxidase antibody. She had a positive PPD test and a cavitary lesion in the right upper lung lobe; biopsy of the lung lesion showed granulomatous vasculitis, but the culture grew mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAI). There are clinical and histiologic similarities between ANCA vasculitis and pulmonary MAI infection. Treatment of vasculitis with immunosuppressive agents could be detrimental in patients with MAI infection. Thus, when ANCA associated vasculitis is considered, mycobacterium infection should be excluded before starting immunosuppressive therapy.
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10/22. Necrotising cryptococcal vasculitis in an hiv-negative woman.

    An 84-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for haemolytic anaemia necessitating chronic steroid therapy presented with skin induration and erythema initially thought to be cellulitis. After a rapid progression of symptoms and failure to respond to antibiotics, a clinical diagnosis of necrotising vasculitis was made. Necrotising cryptococcal vasculitis was confirmed by histopathology and culture.
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