Cases reported "Vasculitis"

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1/158. Angiitis of the central nervous system after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation?

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is only limited information about late neurological complications after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The purpose of this study is to describe a cerebral angiitis-like syndrome after allogeneic BMT. methods: Clinical and diagnostic findings of 5 BMT patients with chronic graft versus host disease and neuropathological data of 1 patient were reported. RESULTS: In the described patients, focal neurological signs and neuropsychological abnormalities occurred years after BMT. MRI revealed periventricular white matter lesions, lacunar or territorial infarctions, leukoencephalopathy, and hemorrhages. Angiitis of the central nervous system was confirmed in 1 patient at autopsy, and an angiitis-like syndrome was suspected in the other patients because of the clinical course and response to treatment. Three patients received cyclophosphamide and steroids (2 improved, 1 died), 1 patient improved after steroids alone, and 1 patient without immunosuppressive therapy deteriorated further. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that an angiitis-like syndrome of the central nervous system can be a neurological manifestation of graft versus host disease, which should be considered a possible cause of cerebral ischemic episodes and pathological MRI scans in BMT patients with graft versus host disease.
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2/158. Multiple cerebral infarctions from nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis mimicking cerebral vasculitis.

    Primary vasculitis of the central nervous system (PVCNS) is an uncommon disorder that can present with a variety of symptoms, making diagnosis and management difficult. We describe a case of cerebral infarction that occurred from nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and presented with clinical and radiologic imaging features that suggested PVCNS. The patient was a 58-year-old woman with left hemiparesis, aphasia, and episodic confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated multifocal lesions consistent with infarction involving both cerebral hemispheres, and cerebral angiography showed changes consistent with vasculitis. Although brain biopsy findings were normal, the patient was treated for presumed vasculitis with cyclophosphamide and prednisone. Four months later respiratory failure secondary to polymicrobial pneumonia and adult respiratory distress syndrome developed, and she died. autopsy revealed multiple infarcts in the heart, lungs, right kidney, spleen, and brain. Multiple thrombotic platelet-fibrin vegetations consistent with NBTE were found on all cardiac valves. Examination of the brain revealed no evidence of active or healed vasculitis. cerebral angiography may show findings that suggest vasculitis, but it is not diagnostic, as several other conditions may cause similar changes. Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis may cause multiple cerebral infarctions and can be difficult to distinguish from vasculitis, as specific diagnostic tests for PVCNS are lacking.
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3/158. Giant cell angiitis of the central nervous system with amyloid angiopathy. A case report and review of the literature.

    We report a new case of giant cell angiitis of the central nervous system associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (GA/CAA). A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized with a history of headaches and lapses of consciousness. After improvement with corticosteroidtherpay, treatment was stopped. She relapsed and died 33 days after first admission. Pathological examination showed unusual extension of GA/CAA lesions, in the superficial and deep layer of the cerebral cortex, and in the cerebellum. Simultaneous occurrence of GA and CAA is rare. Histopathologic findings and immunological pathogenesis of the process are discussed: 1) arguments over pre-existence of CAA, responsible for GA; 2) primitive inflammatory process inducing amyloid deposits; 3) GA/CAA may represent an association of histological lesions related to 2 different types of disease: i) neurodegenerative disease with specific lesions (such as presence of diffuse senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) inducing inflammatory reaction ii) inflammatory disease, with few or no degenerative lesions, responding to immunotherapy.
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4/158. Pachymeningitis in microscopic polyangiitis (MPA): a case report and a review of central nervous system involvement in MPA.

    A case of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) with pachymeningitis is described. The patient had renal, skin, gallbladder and peripheral nervous system involvement, simultaneously with pachymeningitis. Necrotizing glomerulonephritis with crescent formation, and necrotizing small vessel vasculitis in the kidney and skin were confirmed by biopsy. A highly elevated titer of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) was observed. All of the clinical and laboratory abnormalities improved with high-dose pulse and conventional steroid therapy. The literature on central nervous system involvement in MPA and perinuclear-ANCA (p-ANCA)-related vasculitis is reviewed. This case serves to emphasize that pachymeningitis can occur as one of the features of MPA.
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5/158. New imaging findings in a patient with central nervous system dysfunction after bone marrow transplantation.

    central nervous system disorders are an important complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We have recently performed cerebral angiography to examine central nervous system dysfunction in a 22-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had undergone BMT. Angiography demonstrated multiple stenoses and occlusions in the peripheral branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, a pattern similar to that seen in vasculitis. She was thought to most likely have cytomegalovirus (CMV) vasculitis, but other forms of vasculitis, such as angiitis-like-syndrome-associated graft-versus-host disease could not be excluded. This case suggests that CMV vasculitis may cause central nervous system dysfunction after BMT and that imaging studies may provide useful information about central nervous system disorders in these patients.
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6/158. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system and Alzheimer's disease: clinically and pathologically evident in a single patient.

    Two years after being successfully treated for biopsy confirmed primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a 69-year-old woman presented with cognitive decline. In contrast to her first presentation, her altered mental function developed gradually, was not associated with headache or abnormal cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and did not improve with immunosuppression. Reevaluation of her original brain biopsy not only confirmed the presence of PACNS, but also revealed neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, suggesting a concurrent diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Cerebral angiogram did not suggest vasculitis and magnetic resonance imaging showed generalized cerebral atrophy supporting the diagnosis of Alzheimer's. This case illustrates that Alzheimer's dementia and PACNS can coexist in a single patient and that Alzheimer's disease should be considered when a patient with successfully treated PACNS presents with cognitive decline months or years after initial diagnosis.
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7/158. systemic vasculitis presenting as a tumorlike lesion. Four case reports and an analysis of 79 reported cases.

    systemic vasculitis might present as a tumorlike lesion that initially could misdirect the correct diagnosis and the appropriate medical treatment. The aim of the present study is to summarize all reported cases of tumorlike presentation in systemic vasculitides, in order to have comprehensive data on the characteristics of this unusual phenomenon. We report 4 cases of systemic vasculitis presenting as a tumorlike lesion. In addition, we performed a medline search of all English-language papers published from 1966 to 1999, looking for vasculitis presenting as tumorlike lesion. Details were included concerning vasculitis classification, specific characteristics, location of the "tumor," the presence or absence of systemic involvement, and whether surgery was performed before diagnosis. Seventy-nine cases of vasculitis presenting as a tumorlike lesion were found in the literature, in addition to the 4 new cases described. The average age of the reported cases was 50.5 /- 15.8 years, and 51% were female. In 82% of the cases the "tumor" was associated with constitutional symptoms and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The most common vasculitis categories with tumorlike presentation were wegener granulomatosis (WG; 28 cases) and giant cell arteritis (GCA; 17 cases). In almost half the patients, surgery was performed before diagnosis. All patients with GCA presented with either a breast or an ovarian tumor. The most common location of a tumorlike lesion was the breast (22%), followed by central nervous system lesions (16%). Other frequent locations were the ovary (10%), caused exclusively by GCA and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), and the male genitourinary system, almost all caused by PAN. Including vasculitis in the differential diagnosis of a tumorlike lesion might lead to an earlier diagnosis and consequently to prompt and appropriate treatment, avoiding needless operations. Constitutional symptoms and elevated ESR should alert clinicians to the possible diagnosis of vasculitis rather than a tumor. The association of GCA with ovarian pseudotumor is distinct and has not been emphasized before. We therefore suggest that GCA should be included in the list of differential diagnosis of an ovarian or breast tumor in an elderly woman, particularly when systemic symptoms and parameters of inflammation are present.
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8/158. spinal cord involvement in primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a report of two cases.

    SUMMARY: We report two patients with suspected primary angiitis of the CNS who underwent serial contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the spinal cord. MR abnormalities were multiple and enhancing, and located within the cervical and thoracic cord. brain MR findings and brain biopsy specimens were positive for primary angiitis of the CNS. On follow-up MR studies, obtained after steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, a significant decrease in the number and size of the enhancing and nonenhancing abnormalities was observed, along with clinical improvement. Numerous small and enhancing abnormalities with a primarily posterior location, seen at the onset of the disease and resolved on follow-up studies, may be considered suggestive of a diagnosis of primary angiitis of the CNS.
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9/158. Disseminated acanthamoebiasis presenting as lobular panniculitis with necrotizing vasculitis in a patient with AIDS.

    BACKGROUND: Disseminated acanthamoebiasis is a rare entity, almost exclusively occurring in the immunocompromised host. methods: We report an unusual case of a 35-year-old female with recurrent sinusitis and multiple skin nodules demonstrating a necrotizing panniculitis, shown to be due to disseminated acanthamoebiasis. RESULTS: Histologic sections showed a neutrophilic lobular panniculitis with 20- to 30-microm trophozoites consistent with acanthamoeba species. CONCLUSIONS: A review the literature shows that the histopathological presentation of acanthamoebiasis often eludes initial diagnostic attempts and that central nervous system (CNS) involvement is frequent and ultimately fatal. When amoebiasis is suspected, knowledge of the trophozoite and cyst forms may be helpful in distinguishing acanthamoeba species from entamoeba histolytica.
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10/158. hepatitis c, cryoglobulinemia, and cutaneous vasculitis associated with unusual and serious manifestations.

    hepatitis c viral infection is currently the leading cause of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It also is a major predisposing factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is estimated that approximately 1-2% of patients with hepatitis c infection have nonhepatic manifestations that are protean in nature. In this report, we describe six unusual cases of nonhepatic manifestations: abdominal vasculitis in two, peripheral neuropathy in two, and one patient each with central nervous system vasculitis and necrotizing cutaneous vasculitis. All patients had cutaneous vasculitis and cryoglobulinemia. None of our patients had cirrhosis, yet three of the six patients died. Because of the severe manifestations, aggressive therapy was instituted with interferon, immunosuppressive medications, i.v. immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis. Our report underscores the importance of recognizing nonhepatic manifestations in patients with hepatitis c infection that may be associated with high morbidity and mortality.
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