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1/13. Velocardiofacial syndrome in childhood-onset schizophrenia.

    OBJECTIVES: Deletion of chromosome 22q11 (velocardiofacial syndrome) is associated with early neurodevelopmental abnormalities and with schizophrenia in adults. The rate of 22q11 deletions was examined in a series of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), in whom early premorbid developmental and cognitive impairments are more pronounced than in adult-onset cases. METHOD: Through extensive recruiting and screening, a cohort of 47 patients was enrolled in a comprehensive study of very-early-onset schizophrenia. All were tested with fluorescence in situ hybridization for deletions on chromosome 22q11. RESULTS: Three (6.4%) of 47 patients were found to have a 22q11 deletion. All 3 COS patients with 22q11 deletions had premorbid impairments of language, motor, and social development, although their physical characteristics varied. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased midbody corpus callosum area and ventricular volume in relation both to healthy controls and to other COS patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of 22q11 deletions in COS is higher than in the general population (0.025%, p < .001) and may be higher than reported for adult-onset schizophrenia (2.0%, p = .09). These results suggest that 22q11 deletions may be associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, possibly mediated by a more salient neurodevelopmental disruption.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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2/13. Chiari malformation, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits in velocardiofacial syndrome.

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of Chiari malformation, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits in patients with velocardio-facial syndrome. This study was a prospective evaluation of 41 consecutive patients with velocardiofacial syndrome, documented by fluorescence in situ hybridization, between March of 1994 and September of 1998. The 23 girls and 18 boys ranged in age from 0.5 to 15.2 years, with a mean age of 6.7 years. Nineteen patients were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, 39 underwent lateral cephalometric radiography, and all patients were examined for neurologic deficits. Eight of 19 patients (42 percent) had anomalies of the craniovertebral junction, including Chiari type I malformations (n = 4), occipitalization of the atlas (n = 3), and narrowing of the foramen magnum (n = 1). One patient with Chiari malformation required suboccipital craniectomy with laminectomy and decompression. Fourteen of 41 patients (34 percent) had demonstrated neurologic deficits; 10 patients (24 percent) had velar paresis (6 unilateral and 4 bilateral). Chiari malformations, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits are common in velocardiofacial syndrome. Because these findings may influence the outcome of surgical intervention, routine assessment of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome should include careful orofacial examination, lateral cephalometric radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral junction.
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ranking = 7
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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3/13. Evans syndrome in a patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a case report.

    One patient with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and Evans syndrome is reported in this paper. Microdeletions of 22q11.2 are the main etiology for digeorge syndrome, a disorder characterized by heart defects, immune deficiencies due to aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus, and hypocalcemia. Evans syndrome refers to a hematological autoimmune disorder with autoimmune hemolytic anemia accompanied by immune thrombocytopenia. A wide range of autoimmune disorders have been described in digeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome, including one prior report of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. The patient reported herein strengthens the association between the 22q11.2 deletion spectrum and Evans syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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4/13. Specific language impairment in children with velocardiofacial syndrome: four case studies.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe specific language impairment in four children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). DESIGN: A descriptive, retrospective study of four cases. SETTING: University Hospital Groningen, tertiary clinical care. patients: Of 350 patients with cleft plate, 18 children were diagnosed with VCFS. Four children are described. Interventions: In all children, cardiac and plastic surgery was carried out in the first year of life. Afterward, interventions consisted of hearing improvement, pharyngoplasty, and speech therapy. MAIN OUTCOME: Inadequate and uncharacteristic development of articulation and expressive language in four children with VCFS were observed. They differed from the majority in two ways: their nonverbal IQ was in the normal range, and their language skills were below expectations for their IQ. RESULTS: Four of 18 patients with VCFS (22%) showed poor response to therapy and did not develop language in accordance with their normal learning abilities (nonverbal learning capacities and language comprehension). Persistent hypernasal resonance and severe articulation problems remained in all four children. In two children the expressive language profile was also not in agreement with the nonverbal profile: they produced only two- and three-word utterances at the age of 6.0 and 5.3 years. The other two children at the age of 6.8 and 6.4 years produced very long sentences, but they were unintelligible. CONCLUSIONS: The speech and language impairment of the four children may be characterized as a phonological or verbal programming deficit syndrome and as such can be described as a specific language impairment in conjunction with VCFS.
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ranking = 5
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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5/13. Avoiding perils and pitfalls in velocardiofacial syndrome: an otolaryngologist's perspective.

    Velocardiofacial syndrome is classically characterized by clefting of the secondary palate, cardiac defects, learning disabilities, and facial dysmorphism. knowledge of this syndrome is of significant importance to otolaryngologists because a failure to recognize it prior to head and neck surgery can result in serious iatrogenic injury, including velopalatal insufficiency and damage to anomalous carotid arteries. To illustrate these issues, we describe the case of a 5-year-old boy with velocardiofacial syndrome. We also review the literature on velocardiofacial syndrome, which is not very extensive, perhaps because it is often difficult to recognize.
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ranking = 6
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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6/13. obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with velocardiofacial (22q11 deletion) syndrome.

    The study of neurogenetic microdeletion syndromes provides an insight into the developmental psychopathology of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a 22q11 microdeletion syndrome. Forty-three subjects with VCFS of mean age 18.3 /- 10.6 years were comprehensively assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interview and the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). Best estimate diagnoses were made on the basis of information gathered from subjects, parents, teachers, and social workers. Fourteen VCFS subjects (32.6%) met the DSM-IV criteria for OCD. OCD had an early age of onset and generally responded to fluoxetine treatment. It was not related to mental retardation. The most common obsessive-compulsive symptoms were contamination, aggression, somatic worries, hoarding, repetitive questions, and cleaning. Sixteen of the 43 patients (37.2%) had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 7 (16.2%) had psychotic disorder. The results of our study suggest that there is a strong association between VCFS and early-onset OCD. This finding may be significant in the understanding of the underlying genetic basis of OCD.
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ranking = 2.1522805378129
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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7/13. Velocardiofacial syndrome with single central incisor.

    Three siblings and their mother are reported who all had cytogenetically proven velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). One boy had normal dental and craniofacial findings, except for an increased cranial base angle. His sister had only one central incisor in the maxilla. One central incisor had also been missing in the primary dentition. She had no labial frenulum present. cephalometry showed a small maxillary unit length indicating mild maxillary hypoplasia, an increased anterior face height, steep mandibular plane angle, retruded chin, and a large cranial base angle. Dental measurements showed retroclined lower incisors and increased interincisal angle. A second sister had a cleft of the secondary palate. All permanent teeth were present with the exception of a missing central incisor in the lower jaw: the single lower central incisor was situated in the midline. Her cephalometry showed similar findings as in her sister. All three siblings required palate surgery for speech. Mother was not available for detailed dental and other oral investigations. A single maxillary central incisor has previously been reported in VCFS, but to our knowledge a single central incisor in the mandible has not been reported previously in this entity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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8/13. 22q11.2 duplication syndrome: two new familial cases with some overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes.

    Twenty-one patients, including our two cases, with variable clinical phenotype, ranging from mild learning disability to severe congenital malformations or overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes (DG/VCFS), have been shown to have a chromosome duplication 22q11 of the region that is deleted in patients with DG/VCFS. The reported cases have been identified primarily by interphase FISH and could have escaped identification and been missed by routine cytogenetic analysis. Here we report on two inherited cases, referred to us, to rule out 22q11 microdeletion diagnosis of VCFS. The first patient was a 2-month-old girl, who presented with cleft palate, minor dysmorphic features including short palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long fingers, and hearing loss. Her affected mother had mild mental retardation and learning disabilities. The second patient was a 7(1/2)-year-old boy with velopharyngeal insufficiency and mild developmental delay. He had a left preauricular tag, bifida uvula, bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly, and bilateral cryptorchidism. His facial features appeared mildly dysmorphic with hypertelorism, large nose, and micro/retrognathia. The affected father had mild mental retardation and had similar facial features. FISH analysis of interphase cells showed three TUPLE1-probe signals with two chromosome-specific identification probes in each cell. FISH analysis did not show the duplication on the initial testing of metaphase chromosomes. On review, band q11.2 was brighter on one chromosome 22 in some metaphase spreads. The paucity of reported cases of 22q11.2 microduplication likely reflects a combination of phenotypic diversity and the difficulty of diagnosis by FISH analysis on metaphase spreads. These findings illustrate the importance of scanning interphase nuclei when performing FISH analysis for any of the genomic disorders.
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ranking = 5
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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9/13. Di George anomaly and velocardiofacial syndrome.

    The velocardiofacial syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, and learning disabilities. The Di George anomaly involves developmental defects of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, resulting in thymic and parathyroid hypoplasia and cardiac defects. The cases of individuals in two families help substantiate the notion that the Di George anomaly occurs as a feature of the velocardiofacial syndrome. The proband in family 1 was a male infant with persistent hypocalcemia and cardiac defects consisting of truncus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and abnormal aortic arch vessels. autopsy revealed absence of thymic and parathyroid tissue, and the Di George anomaly was diagnosed. His father had a submucous cleft palate, T cell dysfunction, and facial features consistent with the velocardiofacial syndrome. This is the third case of male-to-male transmission of velocardiofacial syndrome. The proband of family 2 was a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay, persistent neonatal hypocalcemia, ventricular septal defect, T cell dysfunction, and facial features of the velocardiofacial syndrome. The Di George anomaly has been reported to occur in at least 18 different disorders. The observation that the Di George anomaly is a component manifestation of the velocardiofacial syndrome in these two families provides further evidence that the Di George anomaly is not a distinct syndrome of a single origin but rather a heterogeneous developmental field defect. It is proposed that all previously reported cases of autosomal dominant Di George anomaly are examples of the velocardiofacial syndrome.
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ranking = 11
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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10/13. Abnormal carotid arteries in the velocardiofacial syndrome: a report of three cases.

    Internal carotid arteries of unusual size and tortuosity were found before or at the time of pharyngeal flap surgery in three children who had the velocardiofacial syndrome with velopharyngeal insufficiency. In two cases, medial displacement of the arteries prevented surgery, and in the other, hypernasality persisted because only a narrow, asymmetrical flap could be raised. Medial displacement of the internal carotid arteries inhibits surgical treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency, necessitating treatment with a prosthetic speech device in such children. Since displacement and tortuosity may be associated findings in the velocardiofacial syndrome, the exact location of the internal carotids should be ascertained when pharyngeal flap surgery is planned.
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ranking = 6
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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