Cases reported "Venous Insufficiency"

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1/20. Temporary arterio-venous shunts to dilate saphenous crossover graft and maintain graft patency.

    A modification of the Palma operation is described in a 25-year-old man with impaired venous outflow of the right leg. After a phlebitic occlusion of the right superficial femoral and external iliac veins he had been operated on twice for varicose veins. The result of these operations was a serious outflow stasis of the right leg during exercise. A saphenous cross-over graft to the right popliteal vein was constructed. Preoperatively a temporary arterio-venous shunt between the left posterior tibial artery and the great saphenous vein had been made in order to increase the diameter of the saphenous vein. Three months later the dilated saphenous vein was resected at the level of the sapheno-tibial artery shunt and anastomosed to the popliteal vein of the right leg. The cross-over graft occluded several times during this operation. A temporary popliteo-popliteal arterio-venous shunt was established distally to the sapheno-popliteal anastomosis to keep the vein graft patent. This second arterio-venous shunt was resected after three months. Venography one month later showed that the vein graft was patent. The patient's complaints had disappeared one month after the operation and a normalization of his venous outflow was recorded plethysmographically. The graft has remained patent during an observation time of eighteen months.
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2/20. Local subcutaneous heparin as treatment for venous insufficiency in replanted digits.

    In the treatment of venous insufficiency unsuitable for surgical correction in replanted digits, a small ungual window was surgically created to infiltrate subcutaneous heparin in the congested digit. The initial heparin dose was 1000 units. This dose made possible a continuous bleeding during 24 to 48 hours, solely through the ungual window. Further doses were applied based on the degree of congestion of the replanted digit, but usually it was necessary to infiltrate up to 500 units of heparin every 24 to 48 hours until vascular stability was achieved. Three patients were treated with this technique. One opted for quitting the treatment. A replanted thumb suffered venous congestion on the seventh postoperative day and was treated with local subcutaneous heparin for 3 days. A replanted fingertip suffered venous thrombosis 24 hours after surgery and was treated likewise for 18 days. In these two patients, success was attained. blood transfusions were carried out in the latter two, and none had any systemic changes in partial thromboplastin or thrombin time. This treatment is based on the mechanism of action of heparin at high doses but applied only to the congested segment. Besides their anticoagulant effect through antithrombin, high doses of heparin slow platelet aggregation, may induce angiogenesis, and have a longer-than-normal half-life. With the above technique, heparin has been applied to the congested segment at an approximate dose of 33,000 to 40,000 units/kg, and continuous bleeding solely through the ungual window for 24 to 48 hours has been achieved, which has allowed us to save two replanted segments with no complications at all. This method may offer another alternative for the medical treatment of venous insufficiency in replanted segments.
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3/20. Reverse venous outflow of a free fibular osteocutaneous flap: a salvage procedure.

    The authors report 2 patients with a massive bony defect of the tibia due to chronic osteomyelitis. They reconstructed the defect using a free vascularized fibular osteocutaneous flap. Unfortunately, venous insufficiency was diagnosed 24 hours postoperatively. The previous anastomosed veins were promptly explored. The peroneal veins of the vascularized fibular bone graft were noted to be full of thrombi. After thrombectomy, the vessels became very fragile and broke down easily. It was impossible to achieve normal antegrade venous outflow from the previous vein of the donor graft; however, they found that distal runoff of the peroneal vein achieved a reverse venous outflow from the donor graft. The great saphenous vein was dissected and reanastomosed to achieve adequate venous drainage. This procedure may offer an alternative treatment for a flap with venous insufficiency.
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4/20. Complications of venous insufficiency after neurotologic-skull base surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence and complications resulting from venous insufficiency after neurotologic-skull base surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review of >3,500 cases. SETTING: Tertiary referral center, inpatient surgery. patients: Six patients: four with complications related to chronic venous insufficiency and two with complications related to acute venous insufficiency. INTERVENTION(S): Medical (steroids, acetazolamide, hyperventilation, mannitol) and surgical (lumboperitoneal shunt, optic nerve decompression, embolectomy) interventions were undertaken. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Chronic venous insufficiency: nonobstructive hydrocephalus manifested by headache, disequilibrium, and papilledema with resultant visual loss. Acute venous insufficiency: acute nonobstructive hydrocephalus resulting in mental status abnormalities in the postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: (1) incidence of 1.5 per 1,000 cases. (2) Acute and chronic forms with different pathogenesis. (3) Acute form presents postoperatively with change in consciousness and herniation, and may proceed to death. (4) Chronic form presents months or years postoperatively with headache, disequilibrium, and visual changes from papilledema. (5) Occurs almost solely in patients with preoperative abnormalities of the venous collecting system. (6) Causes mental status changes postoperatively.
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5/20. A clinical report about an unusual occurrence of post-anesthetic tongue swelling.

    dentures are routinely removed from the oral cavity before general anesthetic procedures. They are only reinserted much later when the patient returns to the room. This clinical report describes an edentulous patient who developed acute tongue swelling from venous congestion as a result of tongue recovery from general anesthesia. Her complete dentures were used to separate the residual ridges during the recovery period and relieved the congestion. Denture insertion increased the height and volume of the oral cavity, which reduced pressure on the tongue, preventing a cycle of tongue compression, congestion, and swelling. This unusual complication suggests that it may be prudent for the edentulous patient to be accompanied by their dentures in the perioperative period.
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6/20. Successful delayed venous drainage in 16 consecutive distal phalangeal replantations.

    The authors describe, in the first report of this type of replantation surgery, a high success rate using delayed venous anastomosis in 16 consecutive distal phalangeal replantations under digital block. Among these replantations, seven fingers (43.8 percent) showed postoperative venous congestion and five fingers were reoperated on with delayed venous drainage under digital block. All the reoperated fingers were successfully drained by additional single or double venous drainage with a vein graft. As a result, 13 fingers survived (81.3 percent success rate). All operations were performed under a digital block.
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7/20. Diffuse phlegmonous phlebitis after endovenous laser treatment of the greater saphenous vein.

    Endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) has become a valuable and safe option in the treatment of varicose veins. Although long-term results are lacking, most patients seem to benefit in the short-term from EVLT. Reported postoperative complications are limited, consisting usually of pain, ecchymosis, induration, phlebitis, or spot skin burn injuries. The most feared complication is an extension of the saphenous thrombus into the femoral vein, with possible pulmonary embolism. Here we report a septic thrombophlebitis after EVLT resulting in a phlegmonous infection of the whole leg that was treated by surgical drainage. Aggressive local therapy and antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of symptoms and eventual satisfactory healing.
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8/20. Vein valve transplantation segmental transposition: a case report.

    A patient with chronic venous insufficiency of the right lower extremity caused by total valve incompetence was operated. A 2.5 cm long segment of basilic vein with intact valve was transplanted as an 'interpositum' into the popliteal vein. Postoperative control was performed with venous occlusion plethysmography, radionuclide venography and Doppler US. As a result of the well-functioning implanted valve the complaints of the patient diminished.
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9/20. Medicinal leech therapy: a case study.

    Essential to the outcome of the replantation of digits is adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow. A nonoperative solution to the problem of venous insufficiency is leeching. The leech relieves venous congestion while attached, as the hirudin released by the leech continues to decongest the digit for 1-2 more hours. The emphasis of this article is a case study using leeches for venous congestion as an alternative to surgery.
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10/20. Venous reconstruction for iliofemoral venous occlusion facilitated by temporary arteriovenous shunt. Long-term results in nine patients.

    In nine patients with iliofemoral venous occlusion, venous reconstructions using a temporary arteriovenous shunt were performed by open thromboendvenectomy with autogenous vein patch angioplasty in four, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) bypass grafts (including two with external ring-supported ePTFE) in four, and Palma's procedure in one patient. There was an adequate function in the reconstructed venous segments in two of four who underwent thromboendvenectomy and in all four with ePTFE bypass grafting for nine months to 13 years after surgery. In those with a temporary arteriovenous shunt, prepared to maintain patency of the reconstructed venous segments, blood flow through the shunt exceeded 100 mL/min, determined by an electromagnetic flowmeter. Postoperative shunt closure was readily facilitated, using a looping technique and a 2-0 nylon. The increased blood flow through the graft made feasible by the temporary arteriovenous shunt enhanced the patency of the reconstructed venous graft and hence there was an improvement in the affected limb.
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