Cases reported "Venous Thrombosis"

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1/104. pulmonary embolism and myocardial hypoxia during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    The treatment of a newborn with severe meconium aspiration by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was complicated by myocardial hypoxia with a marked decrease of myocardial contractility. The onset of the cardiac hypoxia was related to a pulmonary artery embolus. The origin of the embolus was a deep femoral vein thrombosis, caused by a central vein catheter, which was inserted 1 day before ECMO by venous cutdown. The possible pathophysiology of myocardial hypoxia in this patient is discussed, especially with regard to myocardial perfusion, supporting the hypothesis of coronary perfusion occuring with blood from the left ventricle and not from the arterial cannula in the aorta.
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keywords = ventricle
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2/104. Cerebral venous thrombosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome--case reports.

    The authors describe two cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The main clinical features of CVT were persistent headache, hemiparesis, and seizure, and the diagnosis was based on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Both showed acquired deficiency of free protein s. The neurologic symptoms remained stationary in the first patient, who received no anticoagulation therapy, but resolved rapidly in the second, treated with intravenous heparin and supplemented with fresh frozen plasma. CVT should be suspected in patients with nephrotic syndrome who present with symptoms of intracranial hypertension or any focal neurologic deficit.
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ranking = 26.126877993903
keywords = cerebral
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3/104. Endovascular thrombolysis for symptomatic cerebral venous thrombosis.

    OBJECT: The authors sought to treat potentially catastrophic intracranial dural and deep cerebral venous thrombosis by using a multimodality endovascular approach. methods: Six patients aged 14 to 75 years presented with progressive symptoms of thrombotic intracranial venous occlusion. Five presented with neurological deficits, and one patient had a progressive and intractable headache. All six had known risk factors for venous thrombosis: inflammatory bowel disease (two patients), nephrotic syndrome (one), cancer (one), use of oral contraceptive pills (one), and puerperium (one). Four had combined dural and deep venous thrombosis, whereas clot formation was limited to the dural venous sinuses in two patients. All patients underwent diagnostic cerebral arteriograms followed by transvenous catheterization and selective sinus and deep venous microcatheterization. Urokinase was delivered at the proximal aspect of the thrombus in dosages of 200,000 to 1,000,000 IU. In two patients with thrombus refractory to pharmacological thrombolytic treatment, mechanical wire microsnare maceration of the thrombus resulted in sinus patency. Radiological studies obtained 24 hours after thrombolysis reconfirmed sinus/vein patency in all patients. All patients' symptoms and neurological deficits improved, and no procedural complications ensued. Follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 35 months, and all six patients remain free of any symptomatic venous reocclusion. Factors including patients' age, preexisting medical conditions, and duration of symptoms had no statistical bearing on the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: patients with both dural and deep cerebral venous thrombosis often have a variable clinical course and an unpredictable neurological outcome. With recent improvements in interventional techniques, endovascular therapy is warranted in symptomatic patients early in the disease course, prior to morbid and potentially fatal neurological deterioration.
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ranking = 182.88814595732
keywords = cerebral
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4/104. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in childhood.

    The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a leukoproliferative disorder marked by a sustained overproduction of eosinophils and a distinct predilection to damage specific organs, especially the cardiovascular system. It is primarily a disease of middle-aged people. Occasional cases have been encountered in children. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy affected by idiopathic HES with an unusual rapidly fatal course. In addition to eosinophilic cellulitis, cerebral straight and superior sagittal sinus vein thrombosis (CVT) was evident on cranial CT. In our review of the English literature we were unable to find an association between idiopathic HES and CVT.
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ranking = 26.126877993903
keywords = cerebral
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5/104. sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia: a report of two patients.

    Reported are two patients presenting with both thrombocytopenia and sagittal sinus thrombosis. The first patient is a 42-month-old male with no identified thrombophilic risk factors who developed acute neurologic symptoms after an acute infection. The second patient is a 22-month-old female with no history of preceding infection but had a positive lupus anticoagulant test. She also developed deep venous thrombosis and was treated with intravenous heparin. Both patients are currently doing well without neurologic deficits. To the authors' knowledge the second patient is the youngest reported patient with cerebral vein thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia and lupus anticoagulant. These observations call attention to the need for a thorough investigation of thrombophilic risk factors in pediatric patients with thrombotic complications.
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ranking = 26.126877993903
keywords = cerebral
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6/104. Cerebral vein thrombosis in a case with thromboangiitis obliterans.

    thromboangiitis obliterans is a chronic inflammatory vessel disease that involves predominantly the small and medium-sized arteries and veins of the distal extremities. Appearance and cessation of symptoms are closely related to patterns of tobacco consumption. That cerebral arteries can also be involved is shown by reports of rare cases in which cerebral artery occlusion led to infarction. We report on a 28-year-old man with thromboangiitis obliterans who developed extensive cerebral vein thrombosis after a single episode of cigarette smoking following several years of nonsmoking. Despite extensive evaluation, no other known cause or predisposition of cerebral vein thrombosis could be found. This case suggests that cerebral veins can be involved in thromboangiitis obliterans and patients with thromboangiitis obliterans might be at risk for cerebral vein thrombosis.
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ranking = 156.76126796342
keywords = cerebral
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7/104. Emergent decompressive craniectomy in patients with fixed dilated pupils due to cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis: report of three cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis is a rare cause of stroke. Although morbidity and mortality have greatly decreased in recent years as a result of early diagnosis and timely medical treatment, when coma occurs the prognosis remains poor. We evaluated whether emergent decompressive craniectomy has a role in the treatment of patients with brain herniation from dural sinus thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarct. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Three patients developed large hemorrhagic infarct with coma and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils resulting from aseptic dural sinus thrombosis. INTERVENTION: Two patients underwent emergent surgical decompression as soon as brain herniation developed, and these patients had complete functional recovery. One underwent delayed surgical decompression and remained severely disabled. CONCLUSION: Our results provide preliminary evidence that emergent decompressive craniectomy is effective in patients with brain herniation from dural sinus thrombosis, provided that the clinical onset is recent. We therefore recommend consideration of this aggressive surgical technique for such patients, who may survive with good outcomes.
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ranking = 104.50751197561
keywords = cerebral
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8/104. Homozygous prothrombin gene mutation and ischemic cerebrovascular disease: a case report.

    We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who, at the age of 26 suffered from an episode of superficial thrombophlebitis in the left leg, experienced two episodes of transient ischemic attacks at the age of 30 and had an ischemic stroke with left-sided hemiparesis at the age of 31 years. A cerebral CT scan showed an ischemic lesion in the right sylvian area involving the opercular and nucleocapsular regions. Her father had had an ischemic stroke at the age of 54 years and died at the age of 58; her mother had had a myocardial infarction at the age of 48 years and died at 51 years from breast cancer. Laboratory investigation of the patient demonstrated high levels of fibrinogen, F II, F VII, F 1 2, FPA and ACA-IgG with low levels of HDL cholesterol associated with homozygosity for the 20210 A genotype. There were no other genetic or acquired prothrombotic defects. In conclusion, this case strongly suggests a clinically significant role ot the prothrombin gene mutation in both arterial and venous thrombosis.
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ranking = 26.126877993903
keywords = cerebral
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9/104. coccidioidomycosis meningitis with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and tissue arthroconidia.

    To our knowledge we report the first case of meningitis from coccidioides immitis associated with massive dural and cerebral venous thrombosis and with mycelial forms of the organism in brain tissue. The patient was a 43-year-old man with late-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose premortem and postmortem cultures confirmed C immitis as the only central nervous system pathogenic organism. death was attributable to multiple hemorrhagic venous infarctions with cerebral edema and herniation. Although phlebitis has been noted parenthetically to occur in C immitis meningitis in the past, it has been overshadowed by the arteritic complications of the disease. This patient's severe C immitis ventriculitis with adjacent venulitis appeared to be the cause of the widespread venous thrombosis. AIDS-related coagulation defects may have contributed to his thrombotic tendency.
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ranking = 156.76126796342
keywords = cerebral
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10/104. A phase Ib/II trial of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-2 for renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases: a case of fatal central nervous system thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines with nonoverlapping pleiotropic effects. In a prior Phase Ib study, this combination of agents exhibited antitumor effects in the lungs of four of eight patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases. We conducted this Phase Ib/II trial to determine the response rate of renal cell carcinoma patients with pulmonary metastases treated with continuous infusion IL-2 plus GM-CSF. methods: patients with renal cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastases were treated with 1.5, 2.25, or 4.5 x 10(6) IU/m(2)/day 96-hour continuous infusion IL-2 on Days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18, and 1.25, 2.25, or 2.5 microg/kg/day GM-CSF on Days 8-19. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated per protocol, 14 of whom could be evaluated for disease progression. None of these 14 patients had >50% shrinkage of either total tumor burden or pulmonary metastasis. One patient developed Grade 5 neurotoxicity. autopsy revealed acute multifocal cerebral venous thrombosis as well as acute subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF may be associated with marked morbidity and, as in one case in this study, mortality. No significant antitumor activity was appreciated. Thus, the combination of IL-2 and GM-CSF, when administered at this dose and according to this schedule, does not appear to be active in renal cell carcinoma and is associated with significant toxicities. Further studies using this combination of agents should only be undertaken with extreme caution and particular attention to neurotoxicity.
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ranking = 26.126877993903
keywords = cerebral
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