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1/78. Pacemaker therapy in a pediatric patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and rapid intrinsic atrioventricular conduction.

    A 13-year-old boy with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was treated with dual-chamber pacing after severe progression of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and of clinical symptoms despite drug therapy. Rapid intrinsic atrioventricular conduction was overcome and complete preexcitation of the septum achieved by omitting atrial sensing and programming constant atrial pacing with a short atrioventricular delay of 70 msec. After 8 weeks of therapy, a reduction of the left ventricular outflow tract gradient from 125 to 16 mmHg and remodeling of the left ventricle were demonstrated.
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2/78. Dynamic outflow obstruction due to the transient extensive left ventricular wall motion abnormalities caused by acute myocarditis in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: reduction in ventricular afterload by disopyramide.

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted to the coronary care unit because of acute pulmonary edema. Immediate 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms revealed extensive left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and left ventricular hypertrophy with extreme outflow obstruction. Although an ECG showed ST-segment elevation in the anterolateral leads, a coronary arteriogram revealed normal epicardial arteries. heart failure was relieved after diminishing the dynamic outflow obstruction with disopyramide administration. An endomyocardial biopsy from the right ventricle on the 8th hospital day showed borderline myocarditis. Wall motion abnormalities gradually normalized within 2 weeks. It is speculated that her pulmonary edema would not have been relieved so readily without the immediate reduction in ventricular afterload by disopyramide. These clinical changes over time were observed with serial echo-Doppler examinations.
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3/78. Accessory mitral valve tissue causing severe subaortic stenosis with dextrocardia in a premature newborn.

    We report an unusual case of left-ventricular outflow obstruction caused by accessory mitral valve tissue associated with dextrocardia and ventricular septal defect in a seven-day-old, 2200 grams premature infant, who was referred with a heart murmur. The diagnosis was made by two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography which demonstrated the accessory tissue as well as a 100 mmHg peak systolic gradient between the left ventricle and the aorta. Ten days after the presentation the infant underwent emergency surgery after respiratory arrest and recurrent episodes of syncope. The accessory mitral valve tissue and its fibrous extension were excised and the ventricular septal defect was closed. We believe that surgical treatment of patients with accessory mitral valve tissue should be performed early because of the possibility of acute deterioration. Combined aortotomy and interatrial approach is very helpful in evaluating the anatomy and the mitral valve function as well as delineating the tissue to be excised.
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4/78. Double-chambered right ventricle presenting in adulthood.

    BACKGROUND: Double-chambered right ventricle is a form of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction that develops over time, often in patients with an abnormally short distance between the moderator band and pulmonary valve. This lesion typically presents in childhood or adolescence and is often accompanied by a ventricular septal defect. Only a handful of previous cases have been described in which double-chambered right ventricle occurred in adulthood. methods: Since 1992, three patients more than 30 years old (38, 43, and 66 years of age) have presented at our institution with unusual symptoms or a previous incorrect diagnosis. We reviewed the clinical data in these patients. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms included syncope, angina, and severe dyspnea resembling pulmonary hypertension. In 1 patient, disease was categorized as new york Heart association class IV, and in the other 2 as class III. Coexisting anomalies included a patent foramen ovale or secundum atrial septal defect in 2 patients, a small ventricular septal defect in 1 (with a probable history of ventricular septal defect in another), and mild aortic regurgitation in 1. All patients required urgent or emergent operations, with peak pressures in the proximal right ventricular chamber of 135 to 180 mm Hg and severely depressed left ventricular function in 1 patient. Resection of the anomalous right ventricular muscle bundles was achieved through a right atrial approach in all patients. All patients were alive with improved functional status at follow-up, which was between 15 and 40 months. CONCLUSIONS: Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction resulting from a double-chambered right ventricle is rare in adults, but when it does occur it can present with unusual symptoms. When evaluating the patient with signs or symptoms of primary right heart failure, cardiologists should make an effort to image the entire right heart complex. Subcostal echocardiography can facilitate adequate visualization of the right ventricle when it is difficult to distinguish the subpulmonary outflow tract from the parasternal and apical windows.
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5/78. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the left ventricle inducing near-syncope attacks in an 84-year-old woman.

    Cardiac tumors may represent mechanical causes for syncope by limiting left ventricular filling and/or by obstructing the left ventricular outflow tract. Malignant melanoma is known to metastasize to the myocardium or pericardium, but there are only a very limited number of reports describing endocardial involvement by the tumor. We describe herein an 84-year-old woman who presented with daily near-syncope episodes, 9 years after treatment for a choroidal melanoma. The echocardiography and the pathologic examination revealed a metastatic melanoma. This is the first reported case of an ocular melanoma metastasizing to the heart and presenting as a left ventricular intracavitary pedunculated mass.
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6/78. A cardiac hydatid cyst involving the basal interventricular septum causing biventricular outflow tract obstruction.

    We report a case of a 37-year-old sheep-raising man with a cardiac hydatid cyst involving the basal interventricular septum causing biventricular outflow obstruction. He suffered from multi-organ hydatidosis and underwent cerebral hydatid cyst extirpation and right nephrectomy for renal echinococcosis. The diagnosis of the cyst was obtained by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive hemagglutination test. He was operated on for cardiac hydatid cyst using enucleation and capitonnage procedure under extracorporeal circulation. The morbidity was complete atrioventricular block, necessitating VDD pacemaker implantation. This was followed by medical treatment with albendazole (400 mg/day).
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keywords = cerebral
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7/78. Isolated right ventricular hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    Two cases of isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy of right ventricle without any involvement of interventricular septum or left ventricle are reported. Two cases reported in literature are also reviewed. In these cases symptoms are those of left ventricular hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Right ventricular dominance on clinical examination and electrocardiogram and inspiratory increase in intensity of murmur are helpful clues. 2-Dimensional echocardiography with Doppler evaluation can confirm the diagnosis noninvasively.
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8/78. Ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to leiomyosarcoma of the right ventricle.

    Primary leiomyosarcomas of the heart, particularly those affecting the right ventricle, are uncommon. We report the case of a 70-year-old Belgian woman presenting with the symptoms of progressive exertional dyspnea and left-sided pleuritic pain. A leiomyosarcoma which originated from the right lateral ventricle wall, causing pulmonary outflow obstruction, was diagnosed. pathology revealed a neoplasm with a myxoid stroma, high mitotic activity and nuclei expressing atypia. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentine and desmin. Seven months after complete surgical resection the tumor relapsed. This case demonstrates the poor outcome, the high relapse rate and inefficiency of treatment associated with primary cardiac leiomyosarcomas. The current literature regarding the incidence, diagnostic techniques, treatment strategies and survival rates of this rare but terminal disease is reviewed.
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9/78. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm: a case report.

    A 71-year-old woman had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with midventricular obstruction and an apical aneurysm in the left ventricle. She had had abnormal electrocardiograms for more than 30 years and for the past year had been suffering from occasional attacks of dizziness and low systemic blood pressure. Holter 24-h electrocardiographic monitoring revealed ventricular paroxysmal contractions (676/day) with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Doppler echocardiography revealed paradoxical jet flow from the apical aneurysm to the left ventricular outflow during early diastole. magnetic resonance imaging depicted midventricular hypertrophy and a dyskinetic thin apical wall, which were confirmed by angiography. Coronary angiograms showed no narrowing of the major extramural coronary arteries, but there was compression of aberrant coronary arteries apparently feeding the hypertrophic portion of the left ventricular wall. Stress thallium-201 myocardial imaging showed a persistent severe defect in the left ventricular apex. A hemodynamic study revealed low cardiac output and an intraventricular pressure gradient (approximately 90 mmHg) between the left ventricular apical high-pressure chamber and the subaortic low-pressure chamber. The present case represents a rare combination of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, midventricular obstruction, and an apical aneurysm in an elderly woman. myocardial ischemia may have played an important role in the genesis of the apical aneurysm.
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10/78. Obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract after mitral valvuloplasty with implantation of Gregori's ring.

    Mitral valvuloplasty is efficient for repairing mitral valve disease with few complications. In some cases, obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract may occur due to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. We report the case of a patient with this complication and a pressure gradient between the left ventricle and the aorta of 130 mm Hg after mitral valvuloplasty with implantation of a Gregori's ring. The management was clinical with suspension of the vasoactive drugs and introduction of a beta-blocker. Two years after the surgery, the patient is asymptomatic and has a normal life.
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