Cases reported "Vertigo"

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1/13. Unpredictable hearing loss after intratympanic gentamicin treatment for vertigo. A new theory.

    A new hypothesis is advanced suggesting that unpredictable cases of profound hearing loss after intratympanic gentamicin treatment (IGT) may be caused by decreased patency of the communication routes between the inner ear and the cerebrospinal fluid, primarily of the cochlear aqueduct. A tympanic displacement analyzer, which can indirectly analyze inner ear and intracranial pressure changes and can also evaluate the efficiency of communication between these two compartments, was used. Two cases are presented: in the first, a patient who became deaf after IGT showed signs of decreased patency of the communication routes with the tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) test; in the second, a patient without hearing damage after IGT had efficient communication evaluated by the TMD test. These preliminary findings are in accordance with the proposed pathophysiology. If future clinical studies confirm the present theory and findings, it may prove possible to predict and prevent deafness after IGT and possibly also after systemic aminoglycoside treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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2/13. Fluctuant, progressive hearing loss associated with Meniere like vertigo in three patients with the Pendred syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vestibular and long-term audiometric findings in patients with Pendred syndrome. Study design: Retrospective analysis of long-term clinical data. SETTING: University hospital department. patients: Three patients with Pendred syndrome caused by a mutation in the SLC26A4 gene. methods: Perchlorate discharge test, mutation analysis of the SLC26A4 gene, MR imaging of temporal bones, vestibular function test (in two cases) and serial audiometry. A saturation hyperbola with onset age was fitted to the audiometric threshold-on-age data using a nonlinear regression method. The residues remaining after regression were analyzed in a correlation analysis to detect significant ipsilateral or contralateral cofluctuation. RESULTS: All three patients had a mutation in the SLC26A4 gene and bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct; two of them had a positive perchlorate discharge test but in one of two siblings this test was negative. hearing loss was significantly progressive with significant ipsilateral and contralateral cofluctuation in all evaluable cases, combined with episodes of Meniere like vertigo in two cases. The episodes of vertigo are as seen in meniere disease. One case had unilateral caloric areflexia and one had bilateral vestibular hyporeflexia, proven to be progressive in a repeat examination. CONCLUSIONS: patients with Pendred syndrome may exhibit progressive and fluctuant hearing loss with episodes of vertigo.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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3/13. vertigo and the enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    An enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is one of the most commonly identified inner ear bony malformations in children with sensorineural hearing loss of unknown cause. Most previous reports have focused on hearing loss, but individuals with EVA may also experience paroxysmal vertigo lasting minutes to hours. We report the clinical vestibular features and vestibular function testing of two children and one adult with EVA who had a history of sensorineural hearing loss and presented to our neurotology Clinic for the evaluation of episodic vertigo. All the patients had an antecedent history of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss that had been present since early childhood. The onset of vertigo was delayed into adulthood in one patient. Episodes of vertigo could be triggered by minor head trauma or vigorous physical activity. Despite recurrent episodes of vertigo, vestibular function was normal or moderately impaired compared with the severe auditory deficit. Careful analysis of temporal bone CT demonstrated EVA. Associated enlargement of the membranous endolymphatic sac was evident on brain MRI. While hearing loss is a prominent symptom in patients with EVA, vestibular symptoms may cause referral to a neurologist. Although hearing loss occurs early in childhood, vestibular symptoms can be delayed into adulthood, a finding not previously reported.
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ranking = 5
keywords = aqueduct
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4/13. Traumatic perilymphatic fistula: how long can symptoms persist? A follow-up report.

    In the past 18 years 68 ears (average 3.8 per year) were explored for perilymphatic fistula (PLF). A total of nine (13%) ears had a fistula identified at operation. patients with a previous history of otologic surgery were excluded from this review. The most common etiology for PLF was head trauma (4 of 9). Most patients had persistent symptoms lasting months (average 6.7). Eighty-three percent of all patients had sudden or fluctuating hearing loss, 77 percent had vertigo or dysequilibrium, and 61 percent had tinnitus. vertigo was the most commonly improved symptom postoperatively, and only 25 percent of patients had improved hearing. There were no major complications. The authors discuss indications for operation, criteria for diagnosis of PLF, and audiometric and electronystagmographic findings. This report agrees with other recent data indicating that exploration for fistula is an uncommon procedure performed by otologists.
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ranking = 140.35563010428
keywords = perilymphatic
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5/13. Distal renal tubular acidosis associated with large vestibular aqueduct and sensorineural hearing loss.

    CONCLUSIONS: hearing loss and equilibrium dysfunction have different etiologies in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. We suggest that all children with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) should be subjected to an equilibrium study and audiological evaluation, as well as to a CT or MRI scan. OBJECTIVE: dRTA has been described in association with sensorineural hearing loss, but there are no reported cases that have been examined in detail using audiological and equilibrium studies. We report here a case of progressive sensorineural hearing loss with a large vestibular aqueduct and dRTA, and the results of audiological and equilibrium studies. MATERIAL AND methods: A 31-year-old female presented with hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. She had been treated with oral sodium citrate, potassium citrate and potassium chloride supplementation because of dRTA since the age of 1 month. RESULTS: The pure-tone audiogram of the patient was off the scale for the right ear and showed progressive sensorineural hearing loss for the left ear. ice-water caloric testing showed canal paresis on the left side. temporal bone CT and inner ear MRI revealed a large vestibular aqueduct and a large endolymphatic sac on both sides.
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ranking = 7
keywords = aqueduct
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6/13. ataxia and hearing loss secondary to perilymphatic fistula.

    ataxia is rarely attributed to lesions of the peripheral vestibular system. In 1973, the first case of ataxia and hearing loss secondary to a labyrinthine fistula was reported. Until now, this syndrome has not been reported in patients under the age of 10 years. A case is presented of a 5-year-old boy with symptoms of ataxia and hearing loss as well as vertigo and tinnitus after head trauma. Three physical findings appear to be most characteristic of patients with perilymphatic fistulas: a positive fistula response, positive positional testing with the involved ear down, and evidence of vestibular ataxia when testing station and gait. The absolute diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula can only be established by exploration of the middle ear space. If a fistula is found, it may be sealed with soft tissue and, if this fails, actual stapedectomy may be required.
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ranking = 168.42675612513
keywords = perilymphatic
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7/13. adult aqueductal stenosis presenting with fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo. Report of two cases.

    Two cases of aqueductal stenosis presenting with fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo are presented. Audiovestibulometric assessment of both cases disclosed the characteristic pattern of disorder of the membranous inner ear. Non-tumoral aqueductal stenosis was demonstrated by computerized tomography in one case and by positive contrast ventriculography in the other. Shunting procedures of the cerebrospinal fluid resulted in resolution of inner ear dysfunction in both patients.
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ranking = 6
keywords = aqueduct
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8/13. Sudden or fluctuating hearing loss and vertigo in children due to perilymph fistula.

    Five cases are presented of children with rapid onset of sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium, or both, who were found at exploratory tympanotomy to have a perilymph fistula. Four of the children had histories suggesting that antecedent barotrauma or physical exertion contributed to the development of the fistula. One child with congenital unilateral craniosynostosis had a residual temporal bone abnormality on the same side as the perilymph fistula. Two children had identifiable anatomic abnormalities in the middle ear. A classification of perilymph fistula is proposed that describes a congenital, an acquired, and a combined type of fistula. Inner ear fluid dynamics and patency of the cochlear aqueduct appear to be important factors in pathogenesis. Children with unexplained fluctuating or sudden onset of sensorineural hearing loss, and children with unexplained disequilibrium or vertigo should be suspected of having a perilymph fistula. The history can be singularly important in raising the suspicion that a perilymph fistula may be present. Although audiometric, vestibular, and radiographic studies can be helpful, there is no way to prove the presence or absence of a fistula without directly viewing the middle ear. Tympanotomy with repair of the fistula does not assure improvement in hearing.
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ranking = 1
keywords = aqueduct
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9/13. Endoscopic diagnosis of idiopathic perilymphatic fistula.

    The usefulness of endoscopic examination for the diagnosis of idiopathic perilymphatic fistula (IPLF) was investigated. Eight patients presenting with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo underwent endoscopic examination by the transtubal or transtympanic approach. In 5 out of the 8 patients, transtubal endoscopy was carried out using a superfine flexible endoscope. With this approach, no abnormal findings were visualized. A perilymphatic leak from the round window was observed in 2 patients by means of transtympanic examination using a needle scope. These findings were confirmed in both patients by microscopic observation during tympanotomy. In one patient who was finally diagnosed with IPLF, the transtympanic endoscopy failed to detect perilymphatic leakage. Although incision of the tympanic membrane is necessary for the examination, transtympanic endoscopy is useful for the diagnosis of IPLF. Further improvement of the superfine flexible fiberscope is necessary before transtubal observation of the tympanic cavity can be effectively conducted.
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ranking = 196.49788214599
keywords = perilymphatic
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10/13. Transtympanic electrocochleography in the assessment of perilymphatic fistulas.

    An objective method for the pre-operative diagnosis and the post-operative assessment of a presumed perilymphatic fistula (PLF) using transtympanic electrocochleography is presented. Three cases are reported in which the history of the disease and the symptoms strongly suggested the presence of a PLF. Pre-operative transtympanic electrocochleography (TT ECoG) recordings at rest showed changes similar to those of endolymphatic hydrops and signs of instability of the inner ear hydrodynamic system during raised intrathoracic pressure. Surgery revealed a visible leak in two of the three cases. Both windows were repaired in all the patients. All patients were relieved from their vestibular symptoms at the time when the post-operative TT ECoG was conducted 3-6 months later. The post-operative recordings were stable during raised intrathoracic pressure and the previously elevated summating potentials decreased which was interpreted as an objective indication of the recovery of the hydrodynamic system. However, later one of the patients again developed recurrent vertigo. Twenty patients with well-documented Meniere's disease were used as a control group. TT ECoG was conducted during raised intrathoracic pressure. The Meniere patients showed stable recordings. It is suggested that among patients with suspected PLF and signs of hydrops in TT ECoG, a dependence on the intrathoracic pressure reflected in the recordings may indicate a possible fistula.
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ranking = 140.35563010428
keywords = perilymphatic
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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