Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/90. Pontine cryptococcoma in a nonimmunocompromised individual: MRI characteristics.

    The case of a pontine cryptococcoma in a nonimmunocompromised, previously healthy 16-year-old boy is presented. The patient had slowly progressive brainstem signs with right cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII palsies, and contralateral corticospinal and spinothalamic deficits. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed, within the right pons, a 1-cm diameter round mass lesion, hypointense on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and with rim enhancement after infusion of gadopentetate dimeglumine. This is the only report of the MRI findings in an isolated pontine cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. Early recognition of this specific MRI pattern is essential, because complete recovery can be achieved with prompt antifungal treatment.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/90. Magnetic resonance cisternography using the fast spin echo method for the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.

    neuroimaging of vestibular schwannoma was performed with the fat-suppression spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) method and magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography, which is a fast spin echo method using a long echo train length, for the preoperative evaluation of the lateral extension of the tumor in the internal auditory canal, and the anatomical identification of the posterior semicircular canal and the nerves in the canal distal to the tumor. The SPGR method overestimated the lateral extension in eight cases, probably because of enhancement of the nerves adjacent to the tumor in the canal. The posterior semicircular canal could not be clearly identified, and the cranial nerves in the canal were shown only as a nerve bundle. In contrast, MR cisternography showed clear images of the lateral extension of the tumor and the facial and cochlear nerves adjacent to the tumor in the internal auditory canal. The anatomical location of the posterior semicircular canal was also clearly shown. These preoperative findings are very useful to plan the extent to which the internal auditory canal can be opened, and for intraoperative identification of the nerves in the canal. MR cisternography is less invasive since no contrast material or radiation is required, as with thin-slice high-resolution computed tomography (CT). MR cisternography should replace high-resolution CT for the preoperative neuroradiological evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 6
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/90. Benign glandular peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex.

    A unique, deep-seated, benign, glandular peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) of the cerebellopontine angle is described. The tumor arose from the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex in a 15-year-old boy without neurofibromatosis. Histologically, benign glands were embedded in a bland spindle cell stroma. The epithelial cells were immunoreactive for CAM 5.2, and focally for chromogranin. The spindle cells were positive for S100P. The benign glandular PNST unassociated with neurofibromatosis is a controversial entity. The superficial location of most reported cases has made it difficult to exclude entrapped adnexae as a source for the glands. This tumor was separate from the internal auditory meatus on MRI scan, the most likely source of entrapped glands at this site. This case is the first report of a deep-seated, benign, glandular peripheral nerve sheath tumor. It suggests that glandular differentiation in PNSTs, while unusual, is not synonymous with neurofibromatosis or malignancy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 13.371409089919
keywords = nerve, peripheral nerve, peripheral
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/90. Narrow internal auditory canal syndrome: parasaggital reconstruction.

    Narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) syndrome is a malformation of the temporal bone, that is defined as an IAC diameter of only 1-2 mm on high-resolution computed tomographic scans (HRCT). This syndrome is known to be caused by the absence (aplasia or hypoplasia) of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We present a case of unilateral narrow IAC syndrome which was diagnosed by HRCT. The aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve was confirmed using parasigittal reconstruction magnetic resonance image (MRI). The IAC was composed of two separate canals, one of which contained a facial nerve and the other was empty with aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 4
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/90. neurosyphilis as a cause of facial and vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction: MR imaging features.

    The prevalence of syphilis increased for several decades before the mid-1990s in the united states, particularly in the southern states. We report a case of neurosyphilis causing bilateral facial and vestibulocochlear nerve dysfunction in which the diagnosis was not initially suspected based on the patient's demographics and history. The MR imaging features helped to make the diagnosis in this case and to exclude other possible causes of multiple cranial nerve dysfunction in this patient. hearing loss associated with neurosyphilis is one of the few treatable forms of progressive hearing loss, and it is essential that a diagnosis of neurosyphilis be made expeditiously.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 6
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/90. Vestibular function in auditory neuropathy.

    Auditory neuropathy is characterized by mild-to-moderate pure-tone hearing loss, poor speech discrimination out of proportion with this loss, absent or abnormal auditory brainstem responses and normal outer hair cell function as measured by otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics. We followed three patients in our clinic whom we classified as auditory neuropathy patients. These patients also complained of balance disorders and we report our auditory and vestibular system analyses of these patients. The data presented herein include results of audiometric tests (serial pure-tone audiometry and speech discrimination tests), otoacoustic emissions, auditory-evoked brainstem responses and vestibular function tests (clinical tests of balance, electronystagmography, damped rotation tests and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials). In all patients, pure-tone audiometry revealed mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss, markedly poor speech discrimination scores and absent auditory-evoked brainstem responses, all in the presence of normal otoacoustic emissions. Balance tests (caloric tests and damped rotation test) were abnormal. saccades, smooth pursuit eye movements and optokinetic nystagmus were normal in all patients. Neurological and motor system evaluations were normal in all patients. These three auditory neuropathy patients manifest a disorder of cochlear nerve function in the presence of normal outer hair cell activity. They additionally manifest a disorder of the vestibular nerve and its end organs. We conclude that, in patients with isolated auditory neuropathy, the vestibular branch of the VIIIth cranial nerve and its innervated structures may also be affected. We suggest the use of the term "cochlear neuropathy" to characterize those patients with involvement of only the auditory branch of the VIIIth cranial nerve and its innervation.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 6.838865128269
keywords = nerve, neuropathy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/90. An isolated and sporadic auditory neuropathy (auditory nerve disease): report of five patients.

    Five patients of various ages with difficulty in speech discrimination were evaluated. All showed evidence of abnormal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) beginning with the VIIIth cranial nerve. Broad summating potentials were evoked on their electrocochleograms (EcochGs) and they all exhibited almost normal cochlear outer hair cell function by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) recordings. Behavioural audiometric testing revealed a mild to moderate elevation of pure-tone threshold in all patients. The shape of their pure-tone losses varied, being predominantly low-frequency in four patients (rising slope pattern) and flat across all frequencies in one patient. speech intelligibility scores of all patients were poor and out of proportion to what would have been expected if threshold elevation of pure-tone was of cochlear origin (i.e. markedly poor scores on the speech audiogram with good scores on the auditory comprehension test). patients were neurologically normal when the hearing impairment was first manifested. We suggest that this type of hearing impairment is due to an isolated and sporadic disorder of auditory nerve function. It occurs in isolation and does not seem to be part of a generalized neuropathological process.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 22.18749301196
keywords = nerve disease, nerve, neuropathy
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/90. Enhancement of the eighth cranial nerve and labyrinth on MR imaging in sudden sensorineural hearing loss associated with human herpesvirus 1 infection: case report.

    The case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with herpes labialis, subclinical meningitis, and sudden onset of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss is presented. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed marked bilateral enhancement of the intracanalicular portion of the eighth cranial nerve, right cochlea, and left vestibule. polymerase chain reaction was positive for human herpesvirus 1 obtained from the cerebral spinal fluid, which suggested the diagnosis of viral neuritis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 5
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/90. Hearing habilitation with auditory brainstem implantation in two children with cochlear nerve aplasia.

    patients with aplasia and hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve have no chance of having their hearing restored by stimulating the periphery of the auditory system using the traditional cochlear implant. A possible approach to auditory rehabilitation may be direct electrical stimulation of the cochlear nuclei with an auditory brainstem implant (ABI). Recently, two children, aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, with bilateral severe cochlear malformations and cochlear nerve aplasia received an ABI. The present paper reports the technique and the preliminary results of this experience. The classic retrosigmoid approach was used. The correct position of the electrodes was estimated with the aid of EABRs and neural response telemetry (NRT). No postoperative complications were observed. High-resolution CT scans with a bone algorithm reconstruction technique were taken postoperatively to evaluate electrode placement before discharge. The ABI was activated 30 days after implantation in both patients. To date 16 and 13 electrodes, respectively, have been activated in the two children. Three months after activation the first patient had achieved good environmental sound awareness, good speech detection and some speech discrimination. The second child, 1 month after activation, had achieved good environmental sound awareness and moderate speech detection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of patients with hypoplasia of the cochlea and aplasia of the cochlear nerve, aged below 5 years and treated with an ABI.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 7
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/90. Malignant melanoma presenting as sudden onset of complete hearing loss.

    The authors describe a rare case of rapidly progressive bilateral hearing loss associated with carcinomatous meningitis secondary to a primary malignant melanoma of the lower limb 6 years previously. Carcinomatous meningitis is a relatively rare diagnosis, with the involvement of the eighth cranial nerve being present in only a small proportion of patients. diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion (when multiple cranial nerve lesions occur), magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid cytology.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = nerve
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.