Cases reported "Viremia"

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1/21. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in a renal transplant patient as possible cause of repeated urinary extravasations.

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections are infrequent in patients receiving organ transplants, but usually have a poor outcome. We describe the case of a renal transplant patient who developed a disseminated HSV-2 infection with repeated urinary extravasations. The diagnosis was carried out using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction nested assay and it suggested HSV-2 as a possible cause of repeated urinary fistulas.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpes
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2/21. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6)-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is characterized by histiocytic proliferation and phagocytosis triggered by virus infections. viruses in the herpes group, especially the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are well known to cause VAHS; however, the relationship between this syndrome and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection has rarely been reported. In this study, we describe a 23-month-old girl who exhibited typical manifestations of VAHS associated with HHV-6 infection. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the fifth reported case in the English literature.
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ranking = 15.89052030807
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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3/21. A toddler with burns, stomatitis, and skin graft loss.

    The authors report on a healthy 21-month-old toddler with 13% TBSA deep scald burns who was successfully grafted (take 100%). In the immediate postoperative phase, the patient developed classical aphthous stomatitis and subsequent herpes viremia leading to severe viral "graftitis". Although immediately administered intravenous acyclovir therapy appeared to be effective, one third of grafts were lost and had to be replaced. The lesson from this case is 2-fold: Herpes infection may threaten even perfectly engrafted fresh skin transplants, and, freshly grafted or soon to be grafted burn patients should be given intravenous antiviral therapy as soon as a herpes infection is diagnosed.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = herpes
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4/21. Bone marrow failure associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection after transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection has been linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and to rare lymphoproliferative disorders. methods: We used molecular methods, serologic methods, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical analyses to study HHV-8 infection in association with nonmalignant illnesses in three patients after transplantation. RESULTS: Primary HHV-8 infections developed in two patients four months after each received a kidney from the same HHV-8-seropositive cadaveric donor. Seroconversion and viremia occurred coincidentally with disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma in one patient and with an acute syndrome of fever, splenomegaly, cytopenia, and marrow failure with plasmacytosis in the other patient. HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen was present in immature progenitor cells from the aplastic marrow of the latter patient. Identification of the highly variable K1 gene sequence of the HHV-8 genome in both the donor's peripheral-blood cells and the recipients' serum confirmed that transmission had occurred. HHV-8 viremia also occurred after autologous peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation in an HHV-8-seropositive patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Reactivation of the infection was associated with the development of fever and marrow aplasia with plasmacytosis; there was no evidence of other infections. HHV-8 transcripts and latent nuclear antigen were expressed in the aplastic marrow but not in two normal marrow samples obtained before transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Primary HHV-8 infection and reactivation of infection may be associated with nonneoplastic complications in immunosuppressed patients.
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ranking = 34.623235920028
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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5/21. Fulminant disseminated Varicella Zoster virus infection without skin involvement.

    BACKGROUND: Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) infection is potentially very serious in bone marrow transplant recipients, and may manifest as a disseminated visceral infection. This condition is generally accompanied by a vesicular rash. OBJECTIVES: We review here a case of fulminant fatal disseminated VZV infection, not accompanied by skin involvement, and the laboratory approaches currently available to diagnose this disease. STUDY DESIGN: Post mortem tissue samples were subjected to histopathological examination, and tested for herpesviruses by electron microscopy and PCR. RESULTS: Intranuclear inclusions were noted by histological examination in the lungs, liver, kidneys and bone marrow. Particles with a herpesvirus morphology were visualized in liver tissue. VZV dna was detected in liver and bone marrow by PCR followed by sequencing of the amplicons. viremia was documented by retrospective testing of the serum by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: A disseminated VZV infection which proved rapidly fatal was demonstrated in a case without skin manifestations. This rare presentation of VZV infection is potentially underdiagnosed. Testing for VZV viremia by PCR can at the very least suggest the diagnosis although whether plasma-associated viremia is truly pathognomonic of visceral disseminated infection remains to be established.
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ranking = 3.7518460416337
keywords = herpesvirus, herpes
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6/21. Severe pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis after HHV-8 primary infection in a renal transplant patient successfully treated with foscarnet.

    We report the occurrence of human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 primary infection in an adult male kidney recipient. Four months after transplantation, the patient developed visceral Kaposi sarcoma, and 1 month later he presented with progressive and severe peripheral cytopenia, in the presence of a normocellular or hypercellular bone marrow (BM) with hemophagocytosis. HHV-8 was the sole pathogen detected by polymerase chain reaction either in the serum or in the BM. HHV-8 latent nuclear antigen was detected in immature progenitor cells from the BM. Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced, and the patient was treated with foscarnet for 2 weeks, leading to a dramatic normalization of blood cell counts, concomitantly with the disappearance of HHV-8 viremia. At the end of antiviral therapy, the patient received chemotherapy, and Kaposi sarcoma regressed in 2 months. Severe peripheral cytopenia may be a posttransplant complication after HHV-8 infection, for which treatment with foscarnet seems appropriate.
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ranking = 8.1868282248029
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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7/21. Fatal disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in a previously healthy pregnant woman. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the frequent occurrence of localized herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections during pregnancy, disseminated disease has rarely been reported. CASE: A 21-year-old woman in the 27th week of gestation developed a catastrophic illness characterized by fever, progressive pneumonia, respiratory failure, leukopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), anicteric hepatitis, septic shock and acute renal failure. Initial studies for an infectious etiology were negative. In spite of empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, her condition continued to deteriorate. Sparse vesicular skin lesions suggestive of HSV infection subsequently appeared. Despite initiation of acyclovir therapy, the patient died. HSV type 2 was cultured from a skin vesicle, and at autopsy there was extensive necrosis of the liver and lung with immunohistochemical stains positive for HSV antigen. CONCLUSION: In the third trimester of pregnancy, HSV can occasionally disseminate in immunocompetent women. A clinical syndrome of unexplained fever, pneumonia, anicteric hepatitis, leukopenia and DIC without mucocutaneous lesions should prompt investigation and possible treatment for disseminated HSV infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = herpes
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8/21. Quantification of circulating varicella zoster virus-dna for the early diagnosis of visceral varicella.

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-dna was quantified in peripheral blood of 2 patients with visceral varicella due to endogenous reactivation. An 18-year-old male contracted varicella following the courses of chemotherapy for T cell lymphoma. Another 18-year-old male suffered from varicella 16 months after the complete engraftment of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Both patients had past VZV infection, but no recent contact with the disease. Paralytic ileus and ascites preceded the skin lesions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed >200 copies of VZV per 1 ml of whole blood before or at the time when cropping vesicles emerged. The viral load reflected their prolonged clinical courses. Similar levels of VZV-dna were detected in primary varicella patients, but not in herpes zoster patients or immunocompromised children without varicella or zoster. Quantitative monitoring of circulating VZV-dna may be useful for the diagnosis and assessing the treatment response of visceral varicella in immunocompromized hosts.
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ranking = 21.757956590765
keywords = varicella zoster, varicella, zoster, herpes
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9/21. Increase in severity of graft versus host disease by cytomegalovirus.

    An allogeneic transplant recipient developed severe graft versus host disease (GvHD) 48 days after transplantation that was concomitant with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) viraemia, from which she subsequently died. CMV infection was detected in blood by the polymerase chain reaction and later in tissue by immunohistochemical techniques. CMV should be considered in patients in whom GvHD does not respond to appropriate treatment, and this case suggests that herpes viruses may increase the severity of GvHD by synergistically enhancing the graft versus host reaction.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = herpes
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10/21. Endonuclease analyses of dna of human herpesvirus-6 isolated from blood before and after bone marrow transplantation.

    Three strains of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a leukemic child with the antibody of HHV-6 before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT); two strains were obtained before BMT and one after BMT. The dna extracted from the three isolates was analyzed by six different restriction endonucleases. The cleavage profiles of two strains obtained before BMT were different, but the third strain isolated after BMT was identical with one of the two, which suggest reactivation of HHV-6 from the recipient's own body after BMT and possible mutation or super-infection of the virus in an immunocompromised patient.
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ranking = 40.934141124014
keywords = human herpesvirus, herpesvirus, herpes
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