Cases reported "Virilism"

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1/101. Normal female infants born of mothers with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, especially those patients with the salt-losing form, have decreased fertility rates. pregnancy experience in this population is limited. We report the pregnancy outcomes and serial measurements of maternal serum steroid levels in four women with classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, three of whom were female pseudohermaphrodites with the salt-losing form. These glucocorticoid-treated women gave birth to four healthy female newborns with normal female external genitalia, none of whom were affected with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. In three women, circulating androgen levels increased during gestation, but remained within the normal range for pregnancy during glucocorticoid therapy. In the fourth patient, androgen levels were strikingly elevated during gestation despite increasing the dose of oral prednisone from 5 to 15 mg/day (two divided doses). Notwithstanding the high maternal serum concentration of androgens, however, placental aromatase activity was sufficient to prevent masculinization of the external genitalia of the female fetus and quite likely the fetal brain, consistent with the idea that placental aromatization of androgens to estrogens is the principal mechanism that protects the female fetus from the masculinizing effects of maternal hyperandrogenism. These four patients highlight key issues in the management of pregnancy in women with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, particularly the use of endocrine monitoring to assess adrenal androgen suppression in the mother, especially when the fetus is female. Recommendations for the management of pregnancy and delivery in these patients are discussed.
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2/101. hypertension and virilization caused by a unique desoxycorticosterone- and androgen-secreting adrenal adenoma.

    We describe a rare androgen and desoxycorticosterone (DOC)-secreting adrenal tumor in a non-Cushingoid 14 year-old Haitian girl with secondary amenorrhea, hypertension and virilization. Her steroid pattern simulated an 11 beta-hydroxylation defect with notable elevation of adrenal androgens, 11-desoxycortisol (S), DOC, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and pregnenelone. Exogenous ACTH stimulated steroidogenesis. A CAT scan unfortunately failed to delineate an adrenal mass. dexamethasone (DEX) was administered, therefore, which partially suppressed androgen levels, reduced DOC and S by 80% and 82% respectively, and normalized blood pressure. Nevertheless, the response to glucocorticoid was incomplete and an MRI was obtained, which revealed a right adrenal tumor. Post surgery, the patient promptly resumed menses and became normotensive. This case illustrates that ACTH and DEX cannot reliably differentiate tumor from hyperplasia, whereas the simultaneous increase of delta 4 and delta 5 steroids, present here, may favor a tumor. This case also allows speculation that the hypersecretion of DOC may result from inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxylase activity by excess androgens. The importance of appropriate imaging for diagnosis is underscored.
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3/101. prenatal diagnosis and treatment of 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting in normal female genitalia.

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of autosomal recessive disorders of cortisol biosynthesis, which in the majority of cases result from 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Another enzymatic defect causing CAH is 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency. In both forms, the resulting excessive androgen secretion causes genital virilization of the female fetus. For over 10 yr female fetuses affected with 21-hydroxylase deficiency have been safely and successfully prenatally treated with dexamethasone. We report here the first successful prenatal treatment with dexamethasone of an affected female with 11beta-hydroxylase deficiency CAH. The family had two girls affected with 1beta-hydroxylase deficiency born with severe ambiguous genitalia who were both homozygous for the T318M mutation in the CYP11B1 gene, which codes for the 11beta-hydroxylase enzyme. In the third pregnancy in this family, the female fetus was treated in utero by administering dexamethasone to the mother, starting at 5 weeks gestation. The treatment was successful, as the newborn was not virilized and had normal female external genitalia. A second family with two affected sons was also studied in preparation for a future pregnancy. We report a novel 1-bp deletion in codon 394 (R394delta1) in the CYP11B1 gene in this family.
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4/101. Diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia: a unique cause of postmenopausal hyperandrogenism and virilization.

    A 60-year-old woman presented with diffuse scalp alopecia, hirsutism, and clitorimegaly, and the mean serum testosterone levels were greater than 200 ng/dL. Findings on computed tomography of both adrenal glands were normal. After bilateral oophorectomy, a unique histological picture consisting of diffuse stromal Leydig cell hyperplasia was found. Reinke crystals were present, but neither hilus cell hyperplasia nor stromal hyperthecosis was noted. Sequencing of the 11 exons of the gene for the luteinizing hormone receptor revealed no abnormality. Relevant data suggest that treatment of the postmenopausal woman with hyperandrogenism and virilization is bilateral laparoscopic oophorectomy if she has no pronounced ovarian enlargement or adrenal tumor on imaging. In this setting, an intensive endocrine evaluation or a search for metastatic disease seems to be unnecessary.
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5/101. Pediatric adrenocortical tumors: molecular events leading to insulin-like growth factor II gene overexpression.

    It has been previously shown that adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in adults exhibit structural abnormalities in tumor dna in approximately 30% of cases. These abnormalities involve chromosome 11p15 and include loss of heterozygosity, paternal isodisomy, and overexpression of the gene for insulin-like growth factor ii (IGF2), correlating with dna demethylation at this locus. It has been hypothesized that these events occur late in the tumorigenic process in adults and seem to correlate with a worse prognosis. We present 4 pediatric cases of ACT diagnosed at 2.5 yr, 10 months, 12 yr, and 2.2 yr. All 4 patients presented with virilization, and 1 patient also showed signs and symptoms of glucocorticoid excess. The youngest patient's maternal aunt had surgical excision of a more than 15-cm ACT 18 yr previously, but the aunt is doing well at age 23 yr. They all had surgical removal of their tumors. The 2.5-yr-old child also received chemotherapy and radiotherapy because of capsular rupture and, after 3 local recurrences, died 3.3 yr after initial presentation. We investigated all 4 tumors for chromosome 11 structural abnormalities (11p15.5 to 11q23), IGF2 and H19 expression by competitive RT-PCR analysis, and IGF2 methylation patterns by Southern analysis. All 4 tumors (100%) showed a combination of structural abnormalities at the 11p15 locus with mosaic loss of heterozygosity involving 11p. All tumors also had significantly increased IGF2 messenger ribonucleic acid levels relative to normal adrenal (up to 36-fold) and significant IGF2 demethylation (mean, 87%). H19 messenger ribonucleic acid levels were undetectable in 3 of 4 tumors, explained in part by mosaic loss of the actively expressed maternal allele for this imprinted gene. By immunohistochemistry we were able to confirm increased IGF-II peptide levels within the tumor tissue in 10 pediatric patients, including the 4 patients described above. Concomitantly, we also observed nuclear accumulation of p53, suggesting somatic mutations. For the 10-month-old patient, sequencing revealed a p53 germline mutation. We therefore conclude that in pediatric ACT, structural abnormalities of tumor dna and IGF2 overexpression as well as p53 mutations are very common and are therefore less useful for prognosis than in adults. Our findings support the theory that pediatric ACT, whose IGF2 expression and steroidogenesis evoke the phenotype of the fetal adrenal cortex, may arise because of defective apoptosis.
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keywords = adrenal, cortex
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6/101. beckwith-wiedemann syndrome and virilizing cortical adrenal tumor in a child.

    The authors report a case of a virilizing adrenal tumor that developed in a 2-year-old child with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome (BWS). He had a fetal diagnosis of omphalocele and a history of neonatal adrenal cysts. The importance of prenatal diagnosis of BWS and postnatal follow-up of tumors is discussed. The differential diagnosis of adrenal pathologies occurring in BWS also is reviewed.
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keywords = adrenal
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7/101. Selective testosterone secreting adrenocortical carcinoma in an infant.

    adrenocortical carcinoma in children is a rare tumor of adrenal gland. An infant presented with signs of virilization due to selective testosterone hypersecretion. Diagnosis was established with the help of the computerized tomographic scan and histopathological examination. Following adrenalectomy patient made uneventful recovery and six months later does not have any clinical or laboratory evidence of recurrence or metastasis.
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8/101. Ovarian 'tumor' of the adrenogenital syndrome: the first reported case.

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with congenital adrenal hyperplasia from 21-hydroxylase deficiency who had been receiving replacement therapy with corticosteroids since birth. At the age of 35 years, she developed abrupt aggravation of her virilizing symptoms and underwent an adrenalectomy and partial left oophorectomy. Persistent virilization and high testosterone levels led to right oophorectomy and completion left oophorectomy 6 months later. Each adnexa contained ovarian or paraovarian soft brown masses that on microscopic examination were identical to the testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome. This represents the first reported case of this pathology (well known in the testis) in the ovary.
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keywords = adrenal
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9/101. CYP21 mutations in simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    We studied the functional and structural effects of two unique missense mutations in CYP21 found in patients with simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The rare variants L300F and V281G were found in two girls who were each hemizygous for one of the mutations. Functional analysis after expression in COS-1 cells revealed that the mutant enzymes had reduced enzymatic activity for conversion of both 17-hydroxyprogesterone (L300F 9.5%, V281G 3.9% of normal) and progesterone (L300F 4.4%, V281G 3.9% of normal). Both mutant enzymes had an increased degradation in mammalian COS-1 cells compared to the normal protein, although the L300F variant affected the degradation pattern to a greater extent. Our data indicate that the residue L300 is important in maintaining normal structure of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme whereas mutations affecting V281 most likely cause impaired enzyme activity by interfering with a specific function(s) of the protein.
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keywords = adrenal
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10/101. Extraovarian steroid cell tumor 'not otherwise specified' as a rare cause of virilization in twelve-year-old girl.

    BACKGROUND: We present a 12-year-old girl with a 5-year history of progressive virilization. RESULTS: Regarding elevated plasma levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androgens, normal ultrasound and CT scan of ovaries and adrenal glands, the nonclassic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency was presumed the cause of virilization. As the glucocorticoid therapy did not normalize high levels of 17-OHP and androgens, and the dna analysis did not demonstrate a mutation causing CAH, a laparotomy was performed. Near the right ovary a tumor was found and extirpated. Pathohistological studies determined it to be a rare steroid cell tumor, 'not otherwise specified'. Within the next months the signs of virilization resolved and menarche occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Steroid cell tumor should be considered in differential diagnosis of virilization in childhood. Regarding the age of our patient and pathohistological findings of the tumor, her prognosis is favorable.
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