Cases reported "Virus Diseases"

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1/4. Secondary myocardial disease. Virus myocarditis and cardiomyopathy.

    In an attempt to prove the hypothesis that virus myocarditis may be a cause of idiopathic cardiomyopathy, clinical and experimental studies were performed. Eleven patients with a presumptive or proven diagnosis of virus myocarditis were followed for one and a half to 13 years after the acute illness. One patient died in the acute stage, six recovered completely and one continued to have bifascicular block without subjective symptoms. Three patients had exertional dyspnea, cardiomegaly and an abnormal ECG three to 13 years after the onset, and two of them had an enlarged LV cavity with reduced EF and histological changes in myocardial biopsies. The clinical picture in these three cases was similar to that seen in congestive cardiomyopathy. Clinical observations of the heart in an epidemic of coxsackie B 3 virus infection among school children revealed that 49 (19%) of 263 infected children had abnormal chest-X ray, electrocardiographic or echocardiographic findings one to 10 months after the onset, however none of them developed cardiomyopathy. In experimental infection of weanling golden hamsters with coxsackie B 3 virus (Nancy strain), all animals developed acute and severe myocarditis, and the virus was detected in the myocardium. Hemodynamic data suggested decreased contractility of the left ventricle in the acute stage. Histologically the heart showed focal myocardial necrosis and cellular infiltration without calcification, findings which resemble those in human doxsackie B virus myocarditi. Thus, the golden hamster is a better animal model than the mouse in studies on virus myocarditis and postcarditic cardiomyopathy.
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2/4. teratogens associated with congenital contractures in humans and in animals.

    An evaluation of over 350 patients in a study of congenital contractures of the joints (arthrogryposis) included a review of family, pregnancy, and delivery histories for teratogenic exposures. Fifteen out of the total 350 patients studied had a possible teratogenic exposure: an infectious agent (viral or bacterial), maternal drug or toxin ingestion, chronic maternal neurologic or muscular illness, or a direct physical insult such as a structural uterine anomaly. literature was reviewed for all human and animal cases reported with congenital contractures of the joints with an associated teratogenic insult. Those findings are discussed here.
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keywords = animal
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3/4. Treatment of viral infections with 5-aminolevulinic acid and light.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: When 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is exogenously supplied, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is accumulated in various cells and makes them light sensitive. The possibility of using such an approach for the treatment of viral infections was studied in this work. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND methods: ALA was added to cultured cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). Accumulation of PpIX in the cells as well as virus infectivity after photodynamic treatment (PDT) were assessed. For in vivo studies, guinea pigs were infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and then administered ALA at intervals after infection. The animals were exposed to PDT at the site of infection 3 hours after ALA administration. Clinical observations and virus titration were made daily. For clinical studies, two patients with molluscum contagiosum and Verrucae vulgares were treated with ALA fortified with an iron chelating agent and dimethylsulfoxide, followed 4 hours later by PDT. RESULTS: cells that are infected with hiv accumulated PpIX upon addition of ALA in vitro. This accumulation was enhanced approximately two-fold in the presence of an iron chelator. Subsequent exposure to red light PDT drastically reduced the virus titer (> 99% for U1 cells latently infected with hiv). In guinea pigs infected with HSV, subsequent administration of ALA and exposure of the lesions to red light shortened the duration of vesicles' appearance from more than a week to a few days and reduced HSV titer in the lesions by > or = 5 log10. ALA-PDT treated AIDS patient suffering from molluscum contagiosum or a kidney transplant patient with Verrucae vulgares showed greatly improved clinical symptoms one month after treatment. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that ALA-PDT could be effective in treating certain viral infections, particularly those resulting in warts.
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ranking = 0.5
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4/4. Current status of the search for virus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Clinicians have noted resemblance between ALS with predominantly lower motor involvement and a chronic type of poliomyelitis. Occasional cases of ALS show lymphocytic infiltrations in the neuropathology. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies as well as possible transmission of ALS to the monkey, were noted by Soviet investigators. Major questions about the latter remain, but inclusion bodies have been seen in cases outside the ussr, and search for a virus has been pursued. So far, efforts at culture, including the technique of co-cultivation, have not been successful in 3 different laboratories using material from ALS autopsied within 2 hours of death. Nor has such material and specimens from other cases produced transmissible disease in animals of laboratories where kuru, Jakob's disease and SSPE have been transmitted. Study of serum antibodies has also been negative. These negative culture, transmission and antibody studies do not exclude a viral etiology: in kuru, for example, many years passed before transmission was demonstrated, which remains the only evidence of kuru's infectivity. Evidence of an immunologic disorder in ALS has been obtained from kidney biopsies, the lack of any clinical benefit from immunosuppression may indicate that the kidney finding reveals a response to infection, though whether viral or even relevant is unknown. Two recent ALS cases will be illustrated in which virus-like particles were demonstrated post mortem by electronmicroscopy. In one, myxovirus-like tubules were seen mainly in motor neurons; in the other, picorna-virus-like crystals were found in skeletal muscles. Different viruses can cause identical disease, but 2 different viruses in different sites in ALS also suggest that at least one type of particle is an adventitious finding of no general significance. An additional impetus to continue the search is the slowly progressive type C-virus myelitis in wild mice. This disease has many dissimilarities to ALS, including different morphology of the virus, but may provide a model for slow-virus amyotrophy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = animal
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