Cases reported "Virus Diseases"

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1/6. Evaluation of clinically normal appearing skin for systemic infectious diseases in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients.

    The observation of a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patient with cutaneous ulcers which contained both fungal and viral pathogens, and in which the fungal organisms were grown in culture yet could not be demonstrated microscopically, suggested the possibilities: 1) that the skin lesions might have been primarily caused by the viral pathogen, and 2) that the concurrent presence of that fungal pathogen was coincidental and perhaps secondary to fungemia. Assuming that these postulates are valid, it is reasonable to hypothesize that fungal organisms would have been detected if perilesional or distal, clinically normal appearing, skin had been evaluated. This hypothesis could be further assessed by performing a prospective study of clinically normal appearing skin for pathogens of suspected systemic infectious diseases in hiv seropositive patients. Since the quantity of infectious pathogens in nonlesional skin may be limited, it might be difficult to grow the organisms in culture or demonstrate them microscopically using standard methods. Therefore, in addition to routine cultures and histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical techniques using monoclonal antibodies to pathogen antigens and dna amplification techniques based upon the polymerase chain reaction should be used to enhance the detection of the infectious pathogens.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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2/6. association of the virus-like infectious agent originally reported in patients with AIDS with acute fatal disease in previously healthy non-AIDS patients.

    We studied 6 patients from 6 different geographic areas who presented with acute flu-like illnesses. The patients developed persistent fevers, lymphadenopathy or diarrhea, pneumonia, and/or heart, liver, or adrenal failure. They died in 1-7 weeks. These patients had no serological evidence of hiv infection and could not be classified as AIDS patients according to CDC criteria. The clinical signs as well as laboratory and pathological studies of these patients suggested an active infectious process, although no etiological agent was found despite extensive infectious disease work-ups during their hospitalization. Post-mortem examinations showed histopathological lesions of fulminant necrosis involving the lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, liver, adrenal glands, heart, and/or brain. No viral inclusion cells, bacteria, fungi, or parasites could be identified in these tissues using special tissue stains. We report that immunohistochemistry using rabbit antiserum raised against VLIA, the virus-like infectious agent previously identified in patients with AIDS and shown to cause fatal systemic infection in primates, revealed VLIA antigens in these necrotizing lesions. in situ hybridization using an 35S labeled VLIA-specific dna probe also detected VLIA genetic material in the areas of necrosis. Furthermore, virus-like particles closely resembling VLIA were identified ultrastructurally in these histopathological lesions. VLIA was associated with the systemic necrotizing lesions in these previously healthy non-AIDS patients with an acute fatal disease.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = infectious disease
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3/6. ACTH deficiency, hyperprolactinemia and benign intracranial hypertension. A case report.

    A 26-year-old female with ACTH deficiency, hyperprolactinemia and benign intracranial hypertension is reported. Her symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency and persistent amenorrhea appeared after her last child birth one year previously. During an infectious disease she became critically ill with hypotension and was treated with iv penicillin. A bacterial infection was, however, not diagnosed. After 4 days she developed symptoms and signs of intracranial hypertension. She improved gradually within 10 days without specific therapy against the intracranial pressure. Endocrine investigation disclosed a secondary adrenocortical failure. The lesion appeared to be located in the pituitary gland since plasma ACTH and cortisol did not respond to CRH. A moderately elevated serum PRL was found, whereas the pituitary reserves of TSH, GH, LH and FSH were normal, as was a computed tomographic scan of the pituitary gland. The patient was given cortisone substitution therapy and recovered immediately. Within the following year she regained normal menstruations and became pregnant. A possible autoimmune etiology of her isolated ACTH deficiency precipitated in the puerperium is discussed.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = infectious disease
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4/6. Donor to host transmission of disease via corneal transplantation.

    A literature search was conducted to report all cases of documented transmission of infectious diseases from donors to recipients of corneal transplants. Fourteen such cases have been reported. There is no experimental or clinical evidence to suggest the transmissions of either hepatitis or syphilis via corneal grafting. Available evidence regarding a number of neurologic and other disorders in which a slow virus etiology has been implicated were reviewed. On the basis of this review, we are able to draw certain conclusions and guidelines for selection or rejection of donor material for transplant surgery.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = infectious disease
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5/6. Infectious etiologies of rhabdomyolysis: three case reports and review.

    rhabdomyolysis can be precipitated by trauma, ischemia, metabolic defects, electrolyte abnormalities, drugs, and a wide variety of infectious diseases. At our institution, recent cases of rhabdomyolysis induced by influenza prompted us to review the infectious etiologies of this entity. In addition, a thorough literature search revealed numerous case reports but no general review on this subject. This study describes representative recent cases from our institution and details the wide variety of infections that can cause muscle damage. The pathophysiological mechanisms, muscle histology, and correlation with renal dysfunction are also discussed.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = infectious disease
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6/6. Overstimulation of nerve growth factors in postinfectious and autoimmune diseases.

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) in cerebrospinal fluid was measured by ELISA in ten children with postinfectious diseases and in five children with diseases suggested to be of autoimmune etiology. Three groups of patients were studied: (1) those with moderately elevated concentrations (50.67 /- 17.02 pg/mL, mean and SEM), (2) those with high concentrations (mean 424.25 /- 125.41 pg/mL, mean and SEM), and (3) those with enormously high concentrations (mean 2,745 /- 1,819.46 pg/mL, mean and SEM). We suggest that CSF-NGF could be used as an immunologic marker of an ongoing CNS process. Uncontrolled signaling of NGF receptors may lead to long-term inflammatory and autoimmune responses, which in turn can lead to disease.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = infectious disease
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