Cases reported "Vision Disorders"

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1/335. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.
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2/335. Visual loss with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: multifocal central nervous system involvement.

    A 42-year-old woman with a 6-year history of diabetes insipidus and progressive hypersomnolence presented with visual loss. neuroimaging showed infiltration in the hypothalamus, the optic nerve, and the chiasm, as well as multiple lesions in other areas of the brain parenchyma. biopsy showed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. This is an unusual presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, involving the visual pathways without manifestations outside of the central nervous system. The differential diagnosis and the magnetic resonance imaging findings will be discussed.
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3/335. Compression of the visual pathway by anterior cerebral artery aneurysm.

    Visual failure is an uncommon presenting symptom of an intracranial aneurysm. It is even more uncommon in aneurysms arising from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). We presented 2 patients with an aneurysm of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery causing visual field defects. One patient presented with a complete homonymous hemianopia due to compression of the optic tract by a giant aneurysm of the proximal left A1 segment. The second patient had an almost complete unilateral anopia caused by compression of the optic nerve and chiasm by an aneurysm of the distal part of the A1 segment with a small chiasmatic hemorrhage and ventricular rupture.
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4/335. Treatment of paraneoplastic visual loss with intravenous immunoglobulin: report of 3 cases.

    BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic visual loss is an autoimmune disorder believed to be caused by the remote effects of cancer on the retina (cancer-associated retinopathy [CAR]) or optic nerve. Both disorders may result in rapid and complete blindness. Spontaneous recovery of vision has not been reported. The serum of patients with CAR contains autoantibodies against recoverin, enolase, or unidentified retinal proteins. autopsy examination results of eyes of blind patients with CAR show complete absence of the retinal neurons involved in phototransduction. Corticosteroids and plasmapheresis are the only treatment options previously described. OBJECTIVE: To treat paraneoplastic visual loss. DESIGN AND methods: Three patients with metastatic cancer developed rapidly progressive loss of vision. The first patient had visual acuity of hand movements in each eye before intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. The second patient had visual acuity of light perception in both eyes. The third patient's visual acuity was 20/400 OD and 20/20 OS. Diagnostic tests included magnetic resonance imaging of the head and cytologic examination of the cerebrospinal fluid to exclude metastasis as the cause of visual loss and then an electroretinogram and serum tests for autoantibodies against retinal antigens to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CAR. patients 1 and 2 were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg per day) for 5 days; however, patient 3 received only a single dose due to adverse effects consisting of shortness of breath and itching. RESULTS: Within 24 hours of taking the first dose of intravenous immunoglobulin, the visual acuity of patient 1 improved from hand movements only in both eyes to 20/50 OD and 20/200 OS. After the third day of treatment, visual acuity in the left eye further improved to 20/40. Even with the improved acuity, Goldmann visual field perimetry results showed poor responses in both eyes. However, 2 weeks later there was marked visual field improvement, and visual acuity was maintained at 20/50 OD and 20/40 OS. Patient 2 had no improvements and continued to have light perception in both eyes. Patient 3 had improvements in visual field defects but remained 20/400 OD and 20/20 OS. CONCLUSION: Intravenous immunoglobulin may be another treatment option offered to patients with paraneoplastic visual loss in addition to corticosteroids or plasmapheresis because a review of the medical literature has shown no spontaneous improvements of visual function without treatment.
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5/335. Acquired dural fistulae in benign intracranial hypertension: a short case report.

    Venous sinus thrombosis has been regarded as a known cause of intracranial hypertension. We report a case of long-standing raised intracranial hypertension (ICT) that presented with deteriorating vision in both eyes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain and cerebral angiography showed blockage of superior saggital sinus and sigmoid sinuses with bilateral dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) formation.
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6/335. Intracavernous teratoma in a school-aged child.

    An eight-year-old boy presented with left eye pain, photophobia, proptosis, third nerve paresis and decreased visual acuity. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a nonenhancing mass filling the cavernous sinus. Using an extradural fronto-orbitozygomatic approach, the cavernous sinus was approached laterally, and a teratoma was removed from within the cavernous sinus. This is the first case of a truly intracavernous teratoma in a child and the fourth case of a teratoma reported in the cavernous sinus region overall. This report outlines the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual cavernous sinus tumor.
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7/335. Topless optic disk syndrome without maternal diabetes mellitus.

    PURPOSE: To describe four cases of topless optic disk syndrome without maternal diabetes mellitus. METHOD: Four patients had incidentally discovered inferior visual field defects. RESULTS: Ophthalmoscopic examinations in all four patients disclosed superiorly displaced entrances of the central retinal artery and thinning of the superior peripapillary nerve fiber layers. One patient had a superior peripapillary crescent with pallor of the superior disk. These clinical findings were consistent with a diagnosis of superior segmental optic hypoplasia, the topless disk. None of the patients had mothers who had diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The topless optic disk syndrome can occur in the absence of maternal diabetes mellitus.
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8/335. Fetal alcohol syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) describes the systemic and ocular anomalies resulting from the teratogenic effect of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy. It is a leading cause of preventable birth defects in the U.S. case reports: Two case reports illustrate the characteristic findings in FAS. These include growth retardation, cognitive impairment, and facial dysmorphism. Ocular signs are prevalent, including small palpebral fissure, microcornea, strabismus, myopia, astigmatism, and optic nerve hypoplasia. DISCUSSION: Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide spectrum of systemic defects and vision deficits. The increasing frequency of drinking among pregnant women in recent years should call more public attention to this detrimental yet preventable syndrome. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of ocular manifestations aids in making a diagnosis of FAS, which can be challenging. Eye-care professionals can play an important role in patient management and the educational process.
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9/335. Transpupillary thermotherapy as primary treatment for small choroidal melanomas.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the short-term follow-up results of eyes containing small choroidal melanomas that were treated with transpupillary thermotherapy. methods: Twenty eyes with suspected small choroidal melanomas were treated with transpupillary thermotherapy using infrared light delivered from the diode laser. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 26 to 82 years. In 14 patients, there was documented growth of the melanoma before transpupillary thermotherapy. The tumor thickness ranged from less than 1.0 to 3.2 mm. Seven tumors were treated more than once. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to more than 3 years. Following treatment, the tumor thickness decreased in all cases, usually within 2 months. Progressive atrophy of tumor mass and loss of pigmentation within the tumor continued beyond 1 year of follow-up in some eyes. Complications included field defects, vascular changes, and macular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Transpupillary thermotherapy of small choroidal melanomas is usually followed by early tumor shrinkage but is complicated by dense scotomas, nerve fiber bundle defects, and, occasionally, macular abnormalities. The short-term follow-up results suggest that transpupillary thermotherapy may arrest the growth of selected small melanomas.
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10/335. The clinical spectrum of schwannomas presenting with visual dysfunction: a clinicopathologic study of three cases.

    Schwannomas (neurilemomas) are benign tumors that arise from schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. The most commonly involved nerves that cause neuro-ophthalmic manifestations are cranial nerves V and VIII. In this series of three women, schwannomas presented as intraconal masses that mimicked a cavernous hemangioma, a superior orbital mass transgressing the superior orbital fissure, and an expansive frontal lobe mass with clinical symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure. Although all three complained of visual blurring, none of our patients presented with Vth or VIIIth cranial nerve dysfunction. Histopathologic studies demonstrated well-circumscribed, encapsulated spindle-cell lesions with classic Antoni A and B patterns. Histopathologic examination is essential to confirm the diagnosis of a schwannoma that may be otherwise clinically confusing. Direct optic nerve compression, globe indentation with induced hyperopia, or increased intracranial pressure with optic nerve compromise may be responsible for visual symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach is often required because of the size and location of schwannomas.
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