Cases reported "Vision Disorders"

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1/117. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.
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2/117. The perils of a sneeze.

    A 51-year-old woman had a 3-day history of severe left supraorbital pain associated with blurred vision of the left eye. Examination revealed visual acuity of 20/20 OD and 20/100 OS. A left relative afferent pupillary defect was present. neuroimaging revealed a large intra-, supra-, and parasellar mass that had eroded through the sphenoid sinus into the maxillary sinus. Secondary pneumocephalus was present. Pathologic examination of the tissue revealed a pituitary adenoma of the null cell type. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one other case in the literature in which a spontaneous pneumatocele represents the initial manifestation of a pituitary adenoma.
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3/117. Extradural balloon obliteration of the empty sella report of three cases (intrasellar balloon obliteration).

    empty sella syndrome is an anatomical and clinical entity composed of intrasellar reposition of the CSF and compression of the pituitary tissue, resulting in a clinical picture of headache, visual field defect, CSF rhinorrhea and some mild endocrinological disturbances. While some cases are primary with no appreciable aetiology, secondary cases are associated with prior operation or radiotherapy of the region. In our series, 3 patients with primary empty sella syndrome were treated by the current approach of extradural filling of the sellar cavity. This technique was first described by Guiot and widely accepted thereafter. We used a detachable silicon balloon filled with HEMA or liquid silicone for obliteration of the sellar cavity and obtained clinically satisfactory results without complications. Visual symptoms regressed and headache disappeared. But at long term follow-up all the balloons were found to be deflated. Despite the facility and efficacy of the technique we do not recommend it in the treatment of the empty sella because the filling of the sella is only transient and relapses may occur.
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4/117. Large empty sella with an intrasellar herniation of an elongated third ventricle. Case report.

    A 73-year-old female presented with a large empty sella with herniation of an elongated third ventricle concomitant with herniation of the surrounding subarachnoid space into the sella, manifesting as visual impairment and amenorrhea without galactorrhea. magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography cisternography clearly showed the large empty sella, without evidence of either hydrocephalus or benign intracranial hypertension, which is extremely rare.
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5/117. Diaphragma sellae metastasis from colon carcinoma mimicking a meningioma. A case report.

    We describe a rare case of metastatic intra-suprasellar adenocarcinoma from colonic cancer mimicking a meningioma of the "diaphragma sellae". autopsy studies indicate breast and lung carcinoma to be the most frequent primary tumor metastasizing this site, particularly in patients with systemic spread. While diabetes insipidus is reported to be one of the commonest symptoms in these cases, the only clinical manifestation of the tumor in our patient was a bitemporal hemianopia, while the primary tumor remained asymptomatic. In the available literature are reported only two pituitary metastasis from operated colon carcinoma. In both cases the diagnosis of the colon cancer preceded the pituitary operation. The clinico-pathological and neuroradiological aspects of this unusual lesion are analyzed in the light of the relevant literature on the topic focusing on recent MRI acquisitions.
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6/117. Peduncular hallucinosis: an unusual sequel to surgical intervention in the suprasellar region.

    Peduncular hallucinations are formed visual images often associated with sleep disturbance, and are caused by lesions in the midbrain, pons and diencephalon. In the present study, we report two patients who developed peduncular hallucinations following surgery in the suprasellar region. In one of these, the peduncular hallucinations were a sequel to endoscopic third ventriculostomy, while in the other, they were due to diencephalon and mid-brain compression by a postoperative clot following excision of a hypothalamic astrocytoma.
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7/117. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    The neuro-ophthalmologic findings of parasellar neuroendocrine carcinoma are reported. Two patients with parasellar neuroendocrine carcinoma had headache, ptosis, and ophthalmoplegia. In both patients, neuroimaging revealed a parasellar mass with extension into the cavernous sinus. The tumors initially were believed to be pituitary adenomas, but histopathology confirmed neuroendocrine carcinoma. Clinicians should be aware of neuroendocrine carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of sellar/parasellar lesions causing ophthalmoplegia.
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8/117. Optic chiasmal herniation--an under recognized complication of dopamine agonist therapy for macroprolactinoma.

    The initial presentation of macroprolactinoma with visual field impairment, especially in males, is well recognized. Successful treatment with dopamine agonist therapy is characterized by a reduction in hyperprolactinaemia and often rapid and progressive resolution of the visual impairment. A small proportion of patients may subsequently develop a secondary deterioration in both their visual fields and visual acuities despite normalization of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. When pituitary apoplexy can be excluded this may result from traction on the optic chiasm which is pulled down into the now partially empty sella. We report a series of seven patients in whom chiasmal traction is believed to be the cause of their secondary deterioration in visual acuity occurring after dopamine agonist therapy for macroprolactinoma. The clinical history of two patients both of whom had rapid resolution of field defect with bromocriptine therapy but subsequently developed a recurrence of their bitemporal hemianopia is detailed. In both patients MRI scanning showed not only tumour involution but also marked optic chiasm herniation into the pituitary fossa. Surgical treatment was considered too risky; but on reduction of bromocriptine dosage the field defect improved in both cases; there was a modest elevation of prolactin and a degree of tumour re-expansion. The latter is believed to have released tethering of the optic chiasm and/or its vascular supply and thus obviated the need for surgery. Regular monitoring of visual fields in patients with macroprolactinoma receiving medical treatment is therefore important. Early recognition of secondary field loss due to chiasmal herniation enables correction of the visual field loss by manipulation of the medical therapy.
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9/117. Bilateral orbital pseudotumor with suprasellar and pulmonary involvement: report of a case.

    A 39-year-old man had bilateral proptosis and blurred vision for I week. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of bilateral orbital pseudotumor, a suprasellar mass, and pulmonary infiltration. Biopsies from retrobulbar and bronchial sites showed similar inflammatory tissue. His disease resolved with pulsed corticosteroid therapy.
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keywords = sella
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10/117. Visual electrophysiology in children with tumours affecting the visual pathway. case reports.

    In 9 children (8-14 years of age) with orbital, suprasellar or postchiasmal tumours, visual loss was studied by visual electrophysiology in relation to ophthalmologic and neuroimaging findings. Pattern electroretinography (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) to full and half-field pattern-reversal stimulation were recorded and PERG and PVEP changes were related to the tumour location. PERG wave P50 attenuation was found associated with the central retinal dysfunction in the child with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma; PVEP wave P100 delay was associated with the optic nerve dysfunction in a child with retrobulbar chondrosarcoma and in a child with optic nerve glioma; PVEP wave P100 asymmetry was associated with the crossed fibers dysfunction in a child with hypothalamic germinoma, and PVEP wave P100 uncrossed asymmetry was associated with postchiasmal dysfunction in children with postchiasmal tumours (one with pilocytic astrocytoma and two with angioma). On the other hand, normal PERG suggested that there was no central retinal dysfunction in a child with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland, and normal PVEP to full and half-field stimulation excluded visual pathway dysfunction at the chiasm in a child with suprasellar arachnoidal cyst. Follow-up was useful in indicating whether visual dysfunction was progressive or not. We conclude that PERG and PVEP findings contributed to understanding whether the dysfunction originated was at the retina, in the optic nerve, chiasm or postchiasmal pathway.
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